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He sat at an ordinary table, to which the plates were clipped, as aboard ship in a rough sea. However, in deep space and integrated over long periods of engine operation time, the gentle push of an ion engine can impart a very significant velocity change to a spacecraft, and do so extremely efficiently: Though peaceful, the Chili Coral and all soft corals should be given ample space between neighboring corals or anemones to accommodate for growth. What can happen, however, is that an over-sized system can rob some low-end torque. With a poorly built local system, you could see a reduction in power and more noise than you like…only some local shops are as good as the national companies, so it just depends on who you have in your town. So we will merely double it, for m 3 to store our food. Furthermore, the antiproton reaction products are short-lived charged pions and muons, that must be exhausted quickly to prevent an increasing amount of reaction power lost to neutrinos.

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Their color ranges from greens to pinks to purples. Multicolor is often seen with the spikes one color and the body another. Peaceful Food and diet: The urchin is best kept in an aquarium where it will have ample supplies of algae to eat. The Dalmation Linckia is a multi-color Linckia that is found in many colorations.

The picture is just of one particular Dalmation, but there are many different color patterns and all are outstanding to look at. This species has been known to reproduce asexually in aquariums, by breaking off an arm and that arm creating a whole new Starfish. They are also known to have an unusal nimber of arms at times.

A truly incredible species! They are completely reef safe and are a must have for anyone with either a fish-only or reef tank. If introduced to a large well established aquarium, very little needs to be done to supplement Linckias.

The bacterial film that comprises the mainstay of the Linckias diet usually appears in abundance in well established and seasoned aquariums. Starfish are intolerant of sudden changes in oxygen levels, salinity and pH of the water, and cannot tolerate copper-based medications.

Extra care and time should be taken whenever acclimating this animal. The drip acclimation method is highly recommended for all Sea Stars due to their intolerability to changes in water chemistry. Linckia Starfish must never receive exposure to air during acclimation.

Very good Purchase Size: Rose Bulb Anemone's Entacmaea quadricolor sp. When housed beneath bright aquarium lighting, the Rose Bulb Anemone develops a unique bulb tip at the end of its tentacles, hence the name Bulb Anemone. When hungry, this member of the Actiniidae family will stretch its sweeper tentacles to grab food from the water column. After feeding, the tentacles then shorten again Lighting Requirements: In order for the Rose Bulb Anemone to stay beautiful, intense lighting is required.

This can be from LED's, halides, T5's or any good lighting but for the rose to keep its color super bright make sure you are giving it some good lighting.. A good indication of requiring more lighting is if the Rose Bulb Anemone remains tight or compact with bulb like tips its getting good light.

If the aquarium lighting is insufficient, the Rose Bulb Anemone will enlarge its body to get the most out of the light provided. Its diet should include chopped fish, shrimp, or worms if a clownfish is not present, feed with a feeding stick.

Pieces should be cut smaller than the size of the anemones mouth. At times, the tentacles may appear stringy; this may be due to insufficient light or the need for food. Under ideal conditions under high intensity lighting and proper keeping, the Rose Anemone can grow up to about 8 inches in diameter. Wait till you see these under LED's or actinic lighting! These are not died colors. This photo has not been touched up. They are exceptionally hardy, easy to keep , and extremely simple to clone by cutting.

Maxi mini carpets come from Vietnam. They came into the U. Unlike the mini carpet anemones, these maxi anemones come in a rainbow of colors and grow up to 5 inches. The maxi mini anemone is very easy to keep and acclimates within minutes when you introduce it into your tank.

It prefers to live in rock and will move quickly to your rock work if you placeit on a sand bed. A good suggestion is to have a few pieces of rubble rock around to place the anemones in so they won't move around too much. Once they are settled in to their spot with good light and decent flow, they will usually stay in one place.

When keeping under LED's keep them only lower down in a tank. Maxi mini carpets have a week sting compared to other anemones and other corals.

They are not aggressive and you don't have to worry about them digesting your corals during the night, like some other corals would do. I would not advise putting them next to other types of anemones as the maxi minis will probably be damaged. You can keep several maxi mini carpet anemones together in a tank. Since they come in a variety of striking colors, a maxi mini tank is quite beautiful.

Diet Though mostly photosynthetic, supplemental feeding's of raw table shrimp, clam, mussel, silversides, squid and other marine based meats can be fed every few days. Pieces should be cut roughly to the size of the anemones mouth. Medium Approximate Purchase Size: Colors will vary by availability.

Colored Tipped Reef Anemone's Condylactis sp. The Colored or Pink-Tipped Reef Anemone is collected from the Western Atlantic Ocean in lagoons or on inner reefs, as individuals, or loose groups, with their range extending from Brazil to Bermuda.

The Pink-Tipped Anemone is one of the most familiar and commonly available of the anemones in the aquarium trade. Its beautiful colors and inexpensive price make it a popular anemone, especially for beginners. In the aquarium a base size of about 4" is common. This species has diverse color variations. The base color is usually brown to white and the tentacles may or may not have magenta, purple, or green tips on its long tapering tentacles.

The tentacles may occasionally develop a bubble-like appearance to them. It prefers to bury its base in the sand or into the crevice of a rock for protection.

The Pink-Tipped Anemone is a hardy aquarium anemones, but this sea anemone species still needs good light to do well in the aquarium. Like all sea anemones they are photosynthetic and need light to keep the zooxanthella that lives within their body tissue alive.

The Condylactis Anemone has been known to deflate at times. This is normal if it happens once every few weeks, but no more than that. This behavior, the sea anemone purging, may indicate a water change is needed. The typical reef environment is what is needed for your Condylactis Anemone. They need live rock or some other solid material they can attach to. Be sure to have all of your pumps covered, most good quality pumps have guards on them and are worth the investment.

Because this anemone will move about, you will want to provide foam filters over any power head intakes. The Pink-Tipped Anemone is a carnivore. Feed it chopped silversides, shrimp, krill, and mussels, fresh chopped fish from your grocery store , as well as frozen carnivore preparations.

Feed once a week or less. Since this is a cooler water anemone, their metabolism would be much slower than the more tropical sea anemones. Bumble Bee Snails A good addition to a clean up crew, eats uneaten food, decaying matter and most algae species. Bumble Bee Snails are a smaller snail with a dark shell and yellowish bands. They are predominately nocturnal and often spend their time hiding in and under rockwork shelves, caves and overhangs.

They are quite the detrivores and will quickly consume any organics before they have a chance to decay in your system. If given the right water stability, these snails will even spawn. They require a sandbed as they sometimes like to burrow and forage in the substrate. Will stay mostly on sand and rock surfaces eating extra fish food, detritus, decaying matter etc.

Supplemental feedings are welcome and appreciated in the way of raw table shrimp, mysis shrimp, silversides, mussel, clam, scallop and other meaty bits. Select a quantity quantity pricing: They will not harm any other living creatures and will not disturb the decoration or landscaping.

They are very beneficial in any setup as they are good algae eaters and will eat most algae types including hair algae, cyanobacteria and diatoms. According to Julian Sprung's Reef Aquarium Manual , Volume One, Astrea snails are the ideal snail to be placed in your aquarium as soon as ammonia and nitrite levels reach acceptable levels less than 1 ppm.

Introduced as soon as possible to new aquarium, these snails effectively limit the development of all micro algae. Astrea snails are easily identified based on the characteristic sharp conical shell circled by a large ridge. Astrea snails are best kept in well established aquariums and are hardy once they have acclimatized themselves to their new surrounding.

They are like all snails sensitive towards even small changes in water values and it is therefore important to acclimatize them slowly to a tank using drop acclimatization allow this process to take at least two hours. They are also sensitive to high nitrate levels and copper. Even small amounts of copper can prove fatal for Astrea snails and copper based medications can not be used in a tank containing Astrea or other snails.

Recommend 1 per gallon Approximate Purchase Size: Very popular among reef aquarium hobbyists. Gram for Gram, Mexican Turbo Grazer's clean more nuisance algae than any other snail. They do a great job on ridding a tank of hair algae and other nuisance algae off of both the live rock and aquarium glass.

Mexican Turbo snails are referred to as grazers because of their voracious appetites for several types of micro algae found in the home aquarium. Pure work horses, the Mexican Turbo's radula, or tongue, of the snail has a rasp like texture. When pulled across a surface, this rasp pulls the algae loose for a quick snack. Also known as the Turban or Top Shell Snail, Turbo fluctuosa has a thick turban-shaped shell with an iridescent interior.

Appropriate stocking numbers are 1 per 5 gallons of water. They can be fed algae pellets, or sheets of algae if they can't find enough natural food. Great for Cleaning Sand, even Red Slime algae! The Tiger Sand Conch is a hardy member of the Strombidae family.

Despite their name, they are peaceful toward other tank mates. They are excellent sand sifters, and are very beneficial in the reef aquarium. As they burrow and dig through the aquarium substrate, they clean and aerate the bottom. Terrific for Cleaning Tanks with that ugly red or brown slime algae often seen. A hardy algae eater, one of the few that will rid a tank of slime algae, they also love the brown diatoms found on the surface of live sand beds. They will stir and clean upper layers of the sand bed.

One of the best reef tank detritivores. As they burrow and dig through the aquarium substrate they clean and aerate the bottom. Tiger Sand Conch will do an excellent job of cleaning the live sand in your reef tank, where you don't have to sift it around ever!

It'll go to sleep at night, but once the lights come on it goes back to cleaning in no time and will go on for the rest of the day with no breaks. Watching it clean with what looks like an anteater type snout is very entertaining as they move it everywhere to feed. It will always stay on the bottom of your tank, won't bother any invertebrates or corals whatsoever. Once you add these to your tank, you won't ever regret it because they make a unique and different addition.

I highly recommend these for their usefulness. They can be fed algae pellets or sheets of algae if they can't find enough natural food. Select a quantity quantity: They are nocturnal snails and normally are visible late in the day or evening hours after the lights go out on the aquarium tank. The Orange Spot snail does a great job keeping the substrate clean and aerating the substrate at the same time.

They will scavenge for uneaten food and decaying food or other organic matter. They have quite well developed olfactory sense. As soon as they can smell food, they will rush towards it in groups. An aquarium with a thick layer of sand is recommended. The ploughing of sand in your marine aquarium also helps curb the growth of Red Slime Algae, called Cyanobacteria, in the sand.

They eat any uneaten food, and decaying detritus and organic matter. For feeding provide small pieces of any meaty frozen foods such as shrimp, squid, krill, etc. Select quantity quantity pricing: All the garbage in the bottom of the tank, such as unwanted algae, decaying waste, leftover food, fish excrement, all are eaten by the small Nassarius snail. Since it's this waste throughout the aquarium that causes Nitrates to rise, having Nassarius snails in your aquarium that eliminate this waste will keep Nitrates lower.

Because of the important Nitrate elimination from the snail we consider the Nassarius vibex a must have for any good clean up crew. If that's not enough, other advantages the Nassarius provides is the important aeration of the substrate which prevents the sand from compacting and the fact that this constant stirring of the sand puts micro particulates in the water for coral to feed upon. Normally you will not see much of the Nassarius snail but that will change when you feed your tank.

They will emerge as you feed and will pick up the left over food. You will see the Nassarius snail emerge from beneath the sand when you drop food in the tank in a feeding frenzy. If the tank is new or not enough algae is there they can be fed either algae pellets or sheets of algae.

The Halloween Hermit Crab is probably the brightest colored hermit crab available. It is commonly found near the Hawaiian Islands. Like other hermit crabs, this species will wear abandoned shells to protect itself from predators. Many enthusiasts are drawn to the crab for its festive orange and black coloration. The diet of the Halloween Hermit Crab is limited to algae and uneaten foods. This preference makes it an ideal candidate for the reef aquarium.

Hermit crabs will spend their time climbing across Live Rock and the substrate in search of their next meal. The diet of the Holloween Hermit Crab should include meaty foods such as chopped fish and clams, as well as frozen, flake, and freeze-dried foods. An excellent reef aquarium species because it will not bother invertebrates. Easy Approximate Purchase Size: Spotted Porcelain Crab Petrolisthes galathinus Description: The Spotted Porcelain Crab is an exquisite reef safe crab.

They are reef safe, peaceful, and will not harm other invertebrates or corals. Very interesting invertebrates for the marine aquarium.

Common throughout the tropical oceans of the world, they have a flat, round body with two large claws and a pair of maxillipeds which are used to catch plankton in the water column. They are also algae eaters and enjoy lots of live rock to graze and hide, and do well in groups.

They are light blue in color and covered in small red spots, with orange tipped legs; a very unique addition to the reef aquarium. Safely concealed by rocks or coral, the Porcelain Crab constantly filters the water for planktonic food, but will also scavenge for larger meaty portions. Offer the crab small bits of fish, shrimp or meaty food, as well as foods designed for filter feeders.

Blue Tuxedo Urchin Mespilia globulus Description: Easily identifiable by there colored bands usually blue or black, with red, black, or orange dark spines. Like all urchins, Tuxedo Urchins are an excellent algae controller for either a reef aquarium or a saltwater fish only aquarium housing aggressive fish.

During the day, urchins will find a corner or hiding spot to rest. At night, they will roam about the tank searching for food and algae on the substrate, rockwork, and glass. Recommended for any reef aquarium cleanup crew, Green Emerald Crabs are one of the few inverts that will eat nuisance bubble algae which makes them very popular among reef keepers. It will also feed on uneaten meaty foods and many of the types of nuisance algae found in reef aquariums.

Its distinct, flat shiny green body and hairy legs easily identify the Emerald Mithrax Crab. They have dull tipped claws that they use to pick various types of algae from the rockwork. Native to the reefs of the Caribbean, the Emerald Mithrax Crab is nocturnal and hide in caves and amongst rock and coral during the day. In the home aquarium, it requires a well-established aquarium with plenty of rockwork and hiding places. Like other invertebrates, the Emerald Mithrax does not tolerate copper-based medications or fluctuating water parameters.

Ruby Crabs Very close relative to the emerald crab, one excellent algae eater! Recommended for any reef aquarium cleanup crew, Ruby Crabs are one of the few inverts that will eat nuisance bubble algae which makes them very popular among reef keepers. Its distinct, flat shiny green body and hairy legs easily identify the Ruby Mithrax Crab. Native to the reefs of the Caribbean, the Ruby Mithrax Crab is nocturnal and hide in caves and amongst rock and coral during the day.

Like other invertebrates, the Ruby Mithrax does not tolerate copper-based medications or fluctuating water parameters. With bright blue striped legs and orange antennas, highly recommended for any reef aquarium cleanup crew the Blue Leg hermit crab is one of the most popular scavengers in the aquarium trade. Very small, less than an inch, this crab that is one of the best additions to any saltwater aquarium for keeping a saltwater aquarium clean. An excellent scavenger, they feed on detritus and waste build up, just about any form of algae, even the ugly red slime Cyano Bacteria.

Excellent in the reef aquarium because they are able to reach tight crevices and polish off the detritus and algae that bigger inverts cannot get to. They will scour the aquarium's sand and live rock in search of any food they can find and leave the tank virtually nitrate-free.

Flake, pellet or algae strips Recommended minimum tank size: Assorted Green Algae Plant Besides adding beauty to any aquarium, marine plants have become quite popular for use as "algae-scrubbing filters" to remove excess ammonia, nitrates, and phosphates from the aquarium. In addition, they help remove heavy metals and neutralize toxins.

Marine plants also provide a pH buffer and produce chemicals which protect the skin, intestines, and gills of aquarium fish. That's an awful lot of help from marine plants, that's why they are so popular in the marine aquarium system! Select amount Small This unique crab species carries a small anemone, which look like pom poms, in each claw.

There are at least two purposes for carrying the anemones. The first is a simple matter of defense. The Pom Pom will taunt would-be predators by shaking the anemones in hopes of stinging the invader into retreat.

It also mops the substrate to gather uneaten food, thus creating a symbiotic relationship between the Pom Pom Crab and its pom poms. The anemone undoubtedly benefits by getting to eat its share of the treasure. Also known as the Boxer Crab, it is a hardy creature that grows to about an inch in length. Because of this small size, it is great for the mini-reef aquarium. This crab is attractively marked, with striped legs and bold markings. The anemones are dropped during molting but are retrieved once this process completes.

Curiously, lab studies have shown that a crab that loses one anemone will attempt to split the one it has into two regenerated clones, a method used by humans to propagate larger anemones. They may be kept in groups and females will produce reddish colored egg masses that they carry on their abdomens.

Scarlet Hermit Crabs are very hardy and requires minimal care in a well-established system. They have a voracious appetite for detritus and are particularly fond of filamentous, hair, and slime algae, as well as the dreaded cyanobacteria. Also, unlike some hermit crabs, Scarlet Reef Hermit Crabs are very peaceful towards their tankmates. Native to the reef faces and coral rubble of the Caribbean, these active scavengers can consume large amounts of animal matter and algae.

Besides keeping your tank immaculate while it feeds, they will eat fish food and invertebrate diets. If algae levels are insufficient, supplement their diet with dried seaweed. As with all invertebrates, they do not tolerate copper-based medications and extreme fluctuations in water parameters.

Besides adding beauty to any aquarium, marine plants have become quite popular for use as "algae-scrubbing filters" to remove excess ammonia, nitrates, and phosphates from the aquarium. That's an alwful lot of help from marine plants, that's why they are so popular in the marine aquarium system! It has a central stalk with many long thin green brushlike leaves, which gives it the appearance of a shaving brush or paint brush. These plants help reduce excess nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates in the marine aquarium.

Most herbivorous fish and invertebrates will not normally eat this plant. Plant the Shaving Brush in your substrate in a well-lit location in either your aquarium or in a refugium.

This plant will benefit from the regular addition of trace elements. Grown outdoors in open water systems. An air - generated method of tumbling the algae in large vats is employed to culture them. They are not connected to any system containing fish so as to avoid possible parasite contamination. There are multiple uses for macroalgaees in marine aquariums. The most common use is for feeding purposes. Herbivorous fish, such as Tangs, love to eat fresh algae.

It is also know to contain Beta-carotine, an immune system stimulator. Another use is in reef tank refugiums and algae scrubbers. Here the algae absorbs excess nutrients, such as nitrates and phosphates, in the tank and produces oxygen. In addition, it helps remove heavy metals and neutralize's toxins. Gracillaria and other macroalgaes also provide a pH buffer and produce chemicals which protect the skin, intestines, and gills of aquarium fish.

That's an alwful lot of help! It also helps support numbers of small shrimp and other microfauna providing biodiversity. Finally macroalgaes can be used simply as an ornamental algae in a reef tank to add beauty and diversity to the reef structure. Macroalgae's generally require about 8 hours of light daily to continue to grow well. This can be either fl0urecsent or pc's. Their photosynthesis produces oxygen and will also increase the pH. Select amount One Quarter Pound Among aquarists, Caulerpa sp.

There are 75 species of this green algae which come from a variety of geographical areas. Caulerpa are beneficial in several ways. They provide food for other tank inhabitants by offering a favorable environment for microfauna to develop. The microfauna are eaten by fish and other tank inhabitants.

Some fish eat the Caulerpa itself. In the majority of large modern public aquariums Caulerpa is raised because of it's healing qualities. Ill fish often recover rapidly when Caulerpa is in the aquarium. Caulerpa has also become quite popular for use in "algae-scrubbing filters" to remove excess ammonia, nitrates, and phosphates from the aquarium.

Caulerpa also provides a pH buffer and produce chemicals which protect the skin, intestines, and gills of aquarium fish. Caulerpa generally require about 8 hours of light from daily to continue to grow well. This can be either flourescent or pc's. Caulerpa is seasonal, and the species collected throughout the year will vary. Assorted Caulerpa will contain either Grape caulerpa, Needle caulerpa, Lettuce caulerpa or Feather caulerpa. Excellent addition for Water Quality Management.

Chaetomorpha Macro Algae, Chaeto, pronounced "kay-toe", is a great way to naturally turn the nitrogenous compounds of your tank into plant food!!! Chaetomorpha Algae, also known as Spaghetti Algae , is an excellent macro algae for refugiums. Your Chaetomorpha algae recieved will be filled with tons of amphipods and copepods. Macro algae is a great way to "go green" in your aquarium. Reduce water changes by quickly dropping your nitrate and phosphate levels , it will increase the dissolved Oxygen levels in your system and increase overall health of your system the natural way.

Color forms include varying shades of green, light green, and a yellowish green. How do I do it? Chaetomorpha Algae removes both phosphates and nitrates from the water. To increase the amount of nutrients this algae exports, use moderate to high lighting and keep it in an area of high water flow.

The waste by-products of life, along with the light you provide for photosynthesis, will help the chaetomorpha increase in size on a regular basis. Each cell grows end to end, creating long, stiff strands. It grows in filamentous clumps, resembling a ball of fishing line. You can "prune" it and throw it away--or you can compact it for even greater nutrient absorption.

If you have a refugium, just throw this clump like Brillo pad in there and it stays together fairly well. You can also put it into a mesh bag for use in your main tank. There are many different ways you can contain the chaeto in your main tank all the while providing great hiding spots for the tiny "critters" in your tank.

This algae is fast growing and is not palatable to herbivorous species such as Surgeon fish Tangs so it won't be eaten up if left in the main tank. How much do I need?

How much should I get? Well there is only different variables that could be taken into account, if you'd like to go over all of them, feel free to contact us. You could go smaller if you are patient and in no hurry to take care of the excess nutrients, or you could go larger if you ave a larger nitrate problem, hate doing water changes, or would like to see your nitrate issue go away more quickly.

After weighing and bag, a small amount of salt water is then added directly to the bag to insure enough moisture for shipping. Refugium Algae Kit Refugium with all types of algaes Today, marine aquariums almost demand a variety of marine algae.

You get all the macro algae you need here to start a nice refugium. Get 3 different types of Macro algaes that are all beneficial to your aquarium. Red Gracilaria , This is healthy stuff for your fish, it even helps cure lateral line erosion and is also the richest plant source of calcium.

ULVA ,an important food source for many fish. Ulva releases organic acids and necessary substances such as vitamins and amino acids. Chaetomorpha Chaeto , pronounced "kay-toe", also known as Spaghetti Algae, is a great way to naturally turn the nitrogenous compounds of your tank into plant food!!!

The waste by-products of life, along with the light you provide for photosynthesis. It is an excellent macro algae for refugiums. It should ideally be tumbled in an algae filter. This algae is sold by the bag and will arrive in a dense mat. Your copepods and amphipods will love this stuff.

It is what they eat! A small bag of Biological Contents containing copepods, amphipods as well as beneficial worms. The amount is small , just enough to jump start your refugium. Sometimes a macro algae may be unavailable, so a different beneficial macro algae will be substituted in the Macro Algae Kit. The tubes come bent in all sorts of shapes. All Coco Worms require proper calcium levels of ppm in order to grow their tubes.

Coco worms use their radioles, or crowns, to filter bacteria and particulate matter from the water. When disturbed the Coco Worm can retract quickly into its tube and close its operculum to shut the top of its tube for safety. When placing Coco Worms in the aquarium you may bury them in the sand with the crown end of the tube protruding from the sand, or stick them in a hole in the rocks with the crown end facing outward.

Hawaiian Feather Dusters Sabellastarte sp. Easy to keep , great for beginner's, the Hawaiian Feather Duster is known as the king of the feather dusters. They have the nicest fan-shaped crowns, radiole's.

The radiole may be up to 7 inches in diameter, and brightly colored. The Feather Duster uses the radiole to filter out small floating organisms, which it directs toward its mouth, located at the center of the crown.

It protects its segmented body by secreting a parchment-like tube to cover itself. When it is disturbed, it can quickly pull in its radiole into the tube. If it is severely stressed, it will discard its crown, growing it back later. The Feather Duster is usually found in the coral rubble at the base of the reef aquarium, with some of the rubble being incorporated into its parchment-like tube.

A good specimen for beginners, easy Acclimation Time: When disturbed or startled, these little worms will retreat quickly into their hidden tubes. Each rock will have a variable number of worms and a variable number of colors, and the Porites coral rock will also vary in shape and color. Very easy, a great specimen for beginners Acclimation Time: Easy to keep , great for beginner's, the Fountain Feather Duster is the rarest of the beautiful feather dusters.

They have beautiful red and yellow large fan-shaped crowns, radiole's. Bali provides us with these quite large Nuclear Green feather Dusters, beautiful, easy to keep, perfect for the first time reef aquarist. Like it's larger Hawaiian cousin, it protects its segmented body by secreting a parchment-like tube to cover itself.

The Flourescent Green Feather Duster is found in the coral rubble at the base of the reefs, with some of the rubble being incorporated into its parchment-like tube. The red Christmas tree rock is colonized grouping of red tube worms with red spiraling crowns. Wehen disturbed or startled, these little worms will retreat quickly into their hidden tubes.

Each rock will have a variable number of worms. This is one of the popular octocorals that come out of the Atlantic ocean. Widely found in the warm regions of the Atlantic Ocean, on rock, sand, or silt bottoms, the whip-like specimens are generally found in areas of gentle water flow.

An interesting note about this species is that it secretes a substance called homarine, that inhibits the growth of diatoms. As with any gorgonian, no two corals are identical. When the red sea whip gorgonian is closed, the coloring ranges from red to burnt orange.

But when the polyps are open, white polyps emerge against the red branches of its frame. The flexible flowing skeleton of the Red Sea Whip Gorgonian form underwater forests in areas on the Atlantic ocean floor with their plethora of blooming white polyps and latticed branches. Although many beginner aquarist's keep gorgonians successfully, gorgonians are not recommended as a beginner's coral. Yet although they are considered a more difficult coral to care for, they can thrive very well if provided with the proper environment.

Anchoring this gorgonian to a small piece of live rock so that it can stand up in a tank will make positioning it in areas of high water flow much easier. It is peaceful, but it should be given adequate space away from neighboring corals or anemones. Underwater epoxy is commonly used to anchor its base to a piece of live rock in the reef aquarium. Water flow and Light Requirements: The Red Sea Whip should be maintained in a dimly-lit aquarium or in shaded parts of a brightly-lit aquarium with a moderate to a high amount of water flow.

Because the red sea whip resides in the deeper waters, it is not a photosynthetic coral, its diet consists completely of trapped organisms that pass through in the ocean currents.

Feed at least once a week. Feed detritus, brine shrimp, Daphnia, Cyclops, or pulverized flake food, shrimp or clams. Sometimes you can stir up the gravel slightly in order to mix detritus in the water for feeding the species. Select Pack of 1 When the Orange Tree Gorgonian is closed, the coloring is a burnt orange.

But when the beauftiful polyps are open, deep red polyps emerge against the orange frame. The Orange Tree Gorgonian should be maintained in a dimly-lit aquarium or in shaded parts of a brightly-lit aquarium with a moderate to a high amount of water flow. Because the Orange Tree Gorgonian resides in the deeper waters, it is not a photosynthetic coral, its diet consists completely of trapped organisms that pass through in the ocean currents.

Yellow Finger Gorgonian Diodogorgia nodulifera Description: The Yellow Tree Gorgonian is an attractive branching tree-like coral, it is extremely brittle and breaks easily, making it easy to propagate in this way.

This gorgonian is non-photosynthetic and makes a great addition to any reef aquarium, or one containing Seahorses. The Yellow Tree Gorgonian is peaceful, but it should be given adequate space away from neighboring corals or anemones. This gorgonian is photosynthetic and requires a moderate amount of light depending on the amount of filter feeding food that is available. It also requires a stronger water flow and the addition of iodine, calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water.

In order to inhibit algae and cyanobacteria growth, it is important that this gorgonian is provided with a medium to strong, constant or intermittent water flow. If in the event that it does begin to become covered with algae or cyanobacteria, remove it from the coral immediately, as this will cause rapid tissue deterioration. Algae can be removed gently with the use of a soft brush; combat cyanobacteria by soaking the coral in freshwater of the same temperature for approximately 1 minute.

The Yellow Tree Gorgonian should be fed a few times a week with a filter feeding food. Provide a varied diet of live or frozen baby brine shrimp, Marine Snow, PhytoPlancton and other suitable micro foods. Sea fans like the Purple Candleabra create a beautiful display of height and motion in the home reef aquarium. They are easily maintained and propagated, making them an ideal choice for the dedicated hobbyist.

The Purple Candleabra Gorgonian has a flexible axis that has the elasticity of stiff rubber, allowing it to sway while filter feeding in strong currents without breaking.

Most commonly found on outer oceanic reefs attached to vertical faces and the undersides of ledges, Caribbean Pseudopterogorgia have narrow smooth branches that are commonly pinnate. A fast growing coral, care should be taken in allowing ample room for expansion and any interference from other neighboring corals. It is moderately easy to maintain and propagate when encrusted to substrate rubble. It requires medium to high lighting combined with medium to strong water movement.

Algae can be removed gently with the use of a soft brush; combat cyanobacteria by soaking the coral in fresh water of the same temperature for approximately 1 minute. These corals will also benefit from the addition of iodine, calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water. The Purple Candleabra Gorgonian is peaceful, but it should be given adequate space away from neighboring corals or anemones.

Purple Ribbon Gorgonian Description: This particular gorgonian has rows of polyps that extend down the sides of each blade. Gorgonians regularly shed tissue to remove buildup of sediment and algae from forming on their skeleton. All photosynthetic gorgonians require watts per gallon to thrive. Like many corals it also filter feeds, so weekly feeding is recommended for optimal health. We offer single specimens, some mounted on small pieces of live rock that range from " tall.

It is not necessary to feed this coral but it does have the ability to take in tiny bits of food and will do so from time to time. This coral requires at least VHO or Power Compact intensity lighting in order to do well in the aquarium. Keeping this coral in an area of high water flow is necessary to help prevent algae from forming on its branches, so using a powerhead pointed toward the gorgonian for good water flow is highly recommended.

If any algae begins to form on this coral, it must be removed from the branches immediately. This can be accomplished using a small, soft brush, such as a brand new soft bristled toothbrush. It relies on photosynthesis, but its diet should also include regular feedings of micro-plankton, live, baby brine shrimp, or foods designed for filter feeding invertebrates, in order to survive in the reef aquarium.

Red Finger Gorgonian Diodogorgia nodulifera Description: The Red Finger Gorgonian also called the Red Tree Gorgonian is an attractive branching tree-like coral, it is extremely brittle and breaks easily, making it easy to propagate in this way. The Red Finger Gorgonian is peaceful, but it should be given adequate space away from neighboring corals or anemones.

The Red Tree Gorgonian should be fed a few times a week with a filter feeding food. Red or Yellow Tree Sponge Description: Tree sponges Ptilocaulis sp. They are found in the waters around the Caribbean in to foot deep water ,usually near the tops of coral reefs along ocean bottom ledges.

A unique creature that has survived for thousands of years, the oceans sponges have no organs or tissue. They are a very basic life form that behaves like a compilation of separate organisms bound by a coordinated effort for survival. Tree sponge is safe to add to a reef aquarium, it will not damage coral that is in the same tank, like some other sponges.

It is a peaceful, non-aggressive type of sponge that can live forever in a healthy environment. When adding this item to the aquarium be sure to submerge the bag which carries it and release the water from the bag along with the sponge. Place in an area of the tank that gets moderate to strong water flow and shaded light. A striking Tunicate that can add some terrific color to your established reef tank. This is a filter feeder and requires no specific lighting to live.

Also called the Lollipop Tunicate, or Lollipop coral, the Nephtheis fascicularis have thick, fingerlike stalks which support the asparagus-like heads which are actually clusters of what are called zooids. Their sole purpose is to continually filter the water for food, therefore they need good water flow and daily planktonic feedings to thrive. Occasionally these cluster heads drop when stressed such as in shipping or moving to a new location, however they will grow back indicated by a mucas-like substance enveloping the branch.

The Blue Palm is non-photosynthetic and has no lighting requirements, but should be placed in an area of strong water current to filter feed. We have found this coral does best in tanks that have been established for a year or longer and have some sediment on the bottom of the tank.

Diet and Feeding They gain zero nutrition from light, therefore their diet is totally from micro plankton and other filtered foods found in the sediment of the aquarium and filter foods placed in the aquarium.

An excellent feed for tanks that have some sediment on the bottom of the tank is to stir up weekly the sediment to place it in the water for your Blue Palm and your other filter feeders.

It is a branching coral that is closely related to hard corals. It is beautifully branched, forming feather-like colonies and has a beautiful purple coloration. The polyps are nocturnal, and the branches are bumpy in appearance when the polyps are withdrawn. It is semi-aggressive and should be given adequate space away from neighboring corals or anemones.

It makes a rewarding addition to the established reef system. It requires low to high lighting. Algae can be removed gently with the use of a soft brush, and cyanobacteria can be combated by soaking the coral in fresh water of the same temperature for approximately 1 minute. The Purple Willow Gorgonian should be fed a few times a week with a filter feeding food. Provide a diet of live or frozen baby brine shrimp, Marine Snow, Bioplankton and other suitable micro foods.

Live Coral's on Sale! Super long, super flowing, beautiful coloration Description: A favorite from Fiji, the best description for the Spaghetti Finger Leather Coral is a finger type leather with a large number of very long strands of leather.

One of the favorite leather corals for the aquarium, Spaghetti Leathers are golden-white to green in color and have a highly branching form and are covered in tiny polyps.

These corals grow quickly and can quickly become a showpiece after they are established. Larger specimens are more "branchy" than smaller ones and make an impressive display with pulsing water movement. When placing in your aquarium, find a good spot and leave alone. Handle as little as possible. Excessive handling can damage newly arrived specimens.

Once established, they are quite hardy, not as touchy as their initial requirements sound. Spaghetti leathers do best in medium to bright lighting. Moderately strong to strong water movement is also important. The water quality should be kept high with a fairly constant temperature between 75 degrees and 80 degrees. Although the leather coral seeks it's nutritional needs from more than one place, its main source of energy comes from the minute algae zooxanthellae which supplies the coral with a steady stream of energy and nutrients.

A secondary food source comes from the micro plankton and other filtered foods that the leather coral traps in its tentacles during ocean waves and currents. In the reef aquarium, the addition of bottled trace elements such as iodine and strontium should supplement the water to ensure good health.

Moderate Approximate shipping size: The Neon Green Cabbage Leather is one of the brightest leather corals available in the aquarium trade. Its brilliant neon green coloration "Pops" any where it's placed in the reef aquarium it will be a stunner.

Unlike the popular toadstool leather or finger leather corals the Neon Green Cabbage Leather grows flat along the rock and will continue to grow along the rock landscape it is placed on. After testing it I have never seen a hood scoop do like this one.

When I take off it pushes air out the end but sucks it in at the top and I have a divider between the two blocking one from the other. Anyway, once the truck has shifted out and at a steady speed the air flow reverses itself.

Blows out the top and sucks in thru the end. But hey, it works. Also, removed the rear O2 sensor from the exhaust and strapped it to the top of the frame underneath the truck. Theory I read was it picks up outside fresh air and even tho the cat has been cleaned, removed, etc.

All in all with all these little tricks I can they do work cause I have seen it in my MPG and performance. Cool — thanks for sharing all that info. Neat to see someone working on their ride this way. Another trick I learned that does work I got from a forum I was reading, if you take out the rear O2 sensor and strap it to the top of the frame somewhere underneath it will detect the fresh outside air and trick the computer into thinking the cat is working properly. It seems to be working anyway.

I saw an engine that was tore down with , plus miles and it look almost like it had just been rebuilt. I knew the man and always wondered why he did that but he swore by the transmission fluid in the gas bout once a month.

He said he bought the truck brand new in 76 and it was 2 or 3 yrs ago when he had it rebuilt and only then cause his son took it out of state, ran it out of water and kept driving til he blew the motor.

Never mind on making my exhaust quiter. Then I extended them on out with the longer ones. Performance is even better. Guess it created just enough back pressure to get my power back. It took away all the roaring noise in the cab. As far as my hood scoop, I tell everyone I have a Vortec with a Murray 18 hp hood induction. I forgot to mention also, I learned that if you remove the rubber seal between the hood and the wipers it will give you better and faster throttle response which also gives you better mpg.

It helps get rid of some of the air resistance under the hood. In my case I had to leave part of it since my distributor is in the center on the back of the motor. I left just enough of it to keep the distr. The results will shock you, tho, promise. A few months ago I had to replace the head gaskets. After several attempts he line everything up, pulled the distributor, advanced it one tooth which advanced to to 11 over.

We had to leave it. Look at it this way, like having a power chip without buying one. Went back and changed my exhaust. It does however have 10 times the throttle response and it used to have.

From a dead stop at the bottom of an overpass I can punch it and will hit by the time I top the overpass. At last check it was getting I get anywhere from Great and informative article! Do you have any opinions about placing a set of dual mufflers at the end of the exhaust near the tips vs. My car has dual resonators and dual mufflers so I can put them in either place.

Motorcycles, for example, have very short exhaust runs, but their mufflers can be tuned to offer a variety of sounds. As for dual in-dual out vs a true dual sounding better, it depends on the size of your motor. In terms of performance, sharing a muffler may or may not be better…it really depends on the mufflers, the size of your pipes, etc.

To say that dual in-dual out mufflers are always more powerful than a true dual setup is incorrect. As for my recommendation, it would be to purchase a cat-back system designed for your vehicle. All catback systms are tuned to your specific application and tend to sound better than systems that are assembled piecemeal. I have a scion fr-s it has a flat 4 boxer motor and i want to delete the muffler and resonator to give it some sound right now its to quiet will this make the car more efficient?

That car is hot and the after-market companies are working feverishly to get exhaust systems ready. When you remove them, you can make your vehicle less efficient, as the designer accounted for them when they tuned the vehicle.

I would reinstall them — check out http: Hi, on my Police Interceptor, the 2v 4. This car is lbs of steel. Or do i need to go shell out smackaroons for a SCT tuner? I need some help I bought a f v-6 fx-2 ford and looking to upgrade the exhaust system can u tell me what I should go with. Not looking for loud noise just something that sounds good and u cant hardly here it in the cabin.

Looking at mbrp with magnaflow and a resinator I dont know if i should go with dual or single as of know its single from factory and wasnt going to change to true dual. Hi I have a 99 silverado z71 with the 5.

Dakota — Any generic use muffler will work. Zeb — Modern catalytic converters have very little impact on performance, especially on a stock motor. As for going from single to dual, the key is to go with the right size. I currently have a Dodge ram 5. I truly have been thinking about spending the money at a welding shop to have a Y pipe put on my muffler and put dual exhaust coming out the back end. Would that be a waste of money?

If not, any idea a general price range to get that done? I have not looked up prices yet…. William — See the chart on this page: I have a f 4. I am looking for a cheap way to make it sound throatier with added performance with duels. The biggest restriction in an exhaust system is the muffler. Glass packs are fine, provided you get them from a reputable company.

Might be better to go with an inexpensive pair of mufflers and invest in a tuner instead. Ten years ago I would have loved them and said they were perfect. I have a K with a vortec. Each bank has a Cat. I noticed a huge difference in my low end torque after and bow it seems sluggish and doesnt make it through the hills around here anymore without down shifting. Any ideas would help. Also, use caution when dumping your exhaust after the muffler. See this page for more details: I have an infiniti i30 and i need help on my exhaust system.

One of my freinds told me to get a y pipe. What do you reccamend for my car and do you sell any products for it? Joe — No idea, and unfortunately we do not sell mufflers either.

I have a mercury cougar v6 and my car had 2 mufflers on it. He said it was the best and cheapest way to make my car louder. Do u think getting rid of the mufflers made this happen or what?

Generally, however, deleting your mufflers is a bad idea. I had the torque loss right after he did the muffler delete. Aaron — Got it.

I have a F with a 6. Is there any foreseen issues I may have? I have a 99 chev z71 new body style with true duals 5. Hi, I have a ford edge, with a 3. I would want to stay very close to the stock pipe diameter so I wont lose low end power, and I know doing this will make it louder, but how much? Therefore, the difference between a full cat-back and a muffler is a few HP single digits in all likelihood. Having said that, cat-back systems are also tuned for sound.

If you go with an off-the-shelf muffler, you might not be as happy about the exhaust note. Have a 99 Ford Taurus with a 3. Ok, now that your done laughing, I want this car to be unique. Need ideas since I have no idea what type of muffler to throw on. Everyone has a v8 which is hard to mess up exhaust notes on or a 4 cylinder which just ends up droning. Droning is my biggest fear and I have no idea how a little v6 will sound.

Oh, I might add that I have a cold air intake and I have also removed the intake silencer on my Taurus. Adam — No laughing on my end. My only advice is to add a cross pipe. V6 combustion is inherently unbalanced, so you get a better exhaust note when you connect both sides of the exhaust system to one another. For inspiration, check out V6 Mustang exhaust systems on the model. Adam — My bad. I assumed you were adding a dual. But I know that DynoMax has some Walker quiet-flow mufflers that offer good sound and good performance.

I have a 54 chevy wagon with a weld on port for dual or single y flow exhaust…old exhaust original and falling down…would a dual system be ok for it? I have a chevy with a flowmaster, I recently noticed my truck has a flex pipe, will a flex pipe effect the loudness of my flowmaster and what are some pros and cons of a flex pipe and is it necessary? Just bought a c with 5. What exhaust system would you recommend? Will adding a new exhaust void my warrenty? Flow master 70 series axle back sounds nice alone with a magnaflow street series both are throaty and nice deep and rumble tones but if you buy the kit and get it installed at a by aechamic it will not I repeat NOT void your warranty but if you do it your self or by anyone who not a mechanic or welder it will void it.

I have a Camry 3liter v6. Stock the car has about hp.. I have a Challenger with a V6 3. The single exhaust is a 2. The dual system is the same diameter pipes,I believe,but has mufflers and resonators on each side. The mid-mufflers are small compared to the original single exhaust muffler. I am more after the dual exhaust look out the back and prefer factory parts but do not want to hinder any stock performance.

I note that the and up V6 Challengers have a similar true dual exhaust system. Thanks for any help and suggestions. I want a nice, low rumble. What would you recommend? First of all I must give you credits for your knowledge and helpfulness, Jason. As stock it came with true dual exhaust system with dual catalytic converters 1 on each downpipe ofc , after that both pipes joined into one large particulate filter which aswell works as a resonator?

I have removed the particulate filter and replaced it with straight pipes, dual pipes from one end to the other. Thus the exhaust system does no longer have a crossover section there, as it had before. The mufflers after the particulate filter where replaced with straight pipes aswell. The replacing pipes has the same diameter as the stock pipes has otherwise. Does NOT having a crossover section affect performance? Would I gain more from having a crossover X- or H-pipe?

Does removing the mufflers affect performance? To which extent can I increase the size of the pipes in order to gain performance? Will I be able to gain any performance by removing the stock cats? Erik — Your question inspired a blog post — see http: Kurt — See my comments above regarding the low-end torque implications of straight pipes. I just wanted to know something..

I have a Mitsubishi eclipse 5-speed 4-cylinder. I want to make it sound deeper and more like a truck I guess is there anything you could recommend? The stock single exhaust is 2. It made a pretty big difference in power output because the stock muffler was very restrictive. Albert — Short answer? I have a mazda 3, with an after market 3inch intake. Headers are coming this week. What size muffler should i put on it so my overall speed and torque are in ballance?

Im just looking for a basic upgrade. Check with your local Miata racing club to see who they recommend. I was wondering if you could tell me if the rear mufflers should be changed back to stock standard in case its damaging my engine. Jacob — Damaging your engine?

First off, thanks for answering all our questions. I have an 04 Audi S4 with a 4. What happens to my tone if I increase my pipe diameter to 2. What happens to my tone if I add in a second x-pipe?

I had an H pipe prior to the x-pipe, and I got a higher pitched tone with the X vs the H. Along with that, Im thinking if I go with a spintech sportsman pro non chambered like I have now that I may get a higher pitch as well.

I basically want to accentuate my rpm redline as much as possible. Matt — Cross-pipes balance output and generally emphasize lower frequencies. Also, the highest frequency sounds are absorbed inside the mufflers. Can you handle losing some low-end power? Check out this table of ideal exhaust pipe diameters. What type of tone are you looking for??? Lookn at cherry bombs.. Hey i just bought a big hmong like muffler dont know diamater but i plan on putting it on my alero 4 cylinder what would the effects be?

I have a Chevy c30 Dually with a 7. I have an 04 Mustang V6 3. My gas mileage is also not that great. John — Technically, cutting and capping the pipe should result in no ill effect on your exhaust gas flow. However, gases that sit inside that section of pipe will eventually cool, and at that time there will be some sort of flow inside that small section of pipe…but in all likelihood it will not explain your power loss.

However, a dual exit 2. Hey I have a volvo s80 and I was thinking about cutting after the resonator and installing a flowmaster 44 muffler single in and dual out. Do i need to get a smaller or larger diameter to fit on the muffler both inlet and outlet?

Wanting to put dual exhaust on a 4 cylinder. I have seen your comments on not doing this. I have a fiat spider engine. Doing a restoration and rebuild on the engine. Dual plane intake with 2 2 brl carbs It has a 4 to 2 exhaust manifold with 2 drop pipes that converge into collecter then to a single pipe to a muffler. I want to cut the pipes at the collector they appear to be 2 inch.

Can I run 2 2 inch pipes to 2 cherry bombs and exit on each side before the rear tires. Unable to run out the back do to the gas tank location and height. Or do I need to reduce them to a smaller pipe. Is this worth the work or is it a waste of time. Running a dual exhaust has no real benefits provided the single system is properly sized. I want to put dual exhaust on my evo 8, but heres the catch.

Check out QTP exhaust cut-outs. The options on the Grand Marquis, however, are numerous. As I said above, intake, exhaust and programmers are your first options, but new heads and intake manifolds are reasonably priced, as are supercharger kits.

Jonathan — Classic example of how making your exhaust less restrictive ultimately screwed up your torque curve. Restore your system to stock, then just replace the OEM muffler with a good after-market unit.

I drive a 96 Chevy Lumina. Deleted resonator and muffler! It sounds alright for themot part, but I want it louder! Could you please direct me into the right direction. It has the V6…. I am looking for a fix as the rest of the range is Ok. What could be done to move this up or down the rev range?

Air Box,H pipe very small in line additional mufflers,help. I will tell you that a mustang owner on Corral. You can read about it here: Thank you Jason, the site you gave me is full of the same issue, but as I thought a fix is out there. So I just bought a g35 sedan I have added to it a stillen z tube and a jwt pop air filter with a magnaflow exhaust I am not all that familiar with newer car systems do I need to have my car tuned for it or will this perform just fine?

Thanks for the info Jason I think I will do it when I put a hi flow cat thank you again for the info. I have a Chevy k and when i bought the truck, it had headers, gutted empty Cats, Thrush Welded mufflers, and dual tips. Both left and right side pipes were completely separate and never connected. However, the pipes rotted and now im going back to Original factory exhaust.

Would the stock muffler be any different with 1 pipe coming out rather than 2? Because every parts store is giving me different information on the exhaust year.

Hey, my friend just put a new exhaust on my Lancer coupe. This only happen after he had put this on.. Can you help me? Tash — First, prevent further damage. Ill have a look when I get home. Did did connect the ground on your battery to stop it from causing harm to any electronically controlled piece in your car???? True dual with 2. Otherwise the relist of revving it too high could be blowing up your too end. David — You can use a new pipe and an adapter. However, you might look for a downpipe kit first.

Hey, I just read this thread and i learned many valuable tips. I have a question concerning my 08 nissan z. My car has a y pipe coming from the dual cats measuring about 2.

I was thinking of getting a magnaflow single exhaust system designed for my z. However, the pipe size is 2. I know that getting a tune for the exhaust would help but i am trying to avoid getting a tune. I rather get the exhaust system to change the exhaust noise. My concern deals with the change of pipe size from 2. Will this change lower my low end torque if i were to increase the pipe size? I say go for it. I rather get the magnaflow direct fit cat since its emissionable and says can free some of the restrictions.

The two magnaflow cats cost about for both sides. Yeah I was just making sure because I notice on your thread that you mentioned car manufactures designed the exhaust pipe size based on what they believe the car is capable of performing at its best. If they created 2. Thats what concerns me of changing pipe sizes. Keep in mind the size chart is a rough estimate, rounded to the nearest common pipe size available. Hey Jason, i was thinking of going to a another direction where the exhaust tanabe is 2.

Therefore, I would either a try both or b invest in a tuned system that someone else has already designed to fit your car. Or true dual it? Dylan — I would do a cat-back. That will be the most affordable option and it will also be good for a few HP. I would go with a factory-like setup until you get to the cat.

A good after-market muffler is going to add power and sound without screwing up performance or fuel economy. Suddenly my car has completely shut off twice while I was driving — but the radio and lights and everything was still working.

I was wondering if the small tail pipe can cause this to happen? Just added supercharger to a 4. The best way to milk all the power of a supercharged engine is to re-do the system with headers, a high-flow cat, and then a good mandrel-bent performance system. It will be louder, but it will be less restrictive…and my guess is that the factory muffler is the bottleneck in your system right now.

My muffler and intermediate pipe were replaced at Meineke. The muffler is smaller than the OEM by Nissan. Should I be concerned about this? Will it affect engine performance or cause damage? In fact, a smaller muffler could be less restrictive. I have a subaru Impreza Rs sedan. What should i keep an eye out for and the type of questions i should ask? In order to have performance, a nice soft idle and a nice yet not too loud tone on acceleration.

Im a new to this and want to have fun with my car without annoying nieghbors and police. Hope you can help. Call them up and ask them for a recommendation. As a general rule, I believe tuned cat-back systems offered by major exhaust system manufacturers are the way to go. With a poorly built local system, you could see a reduction in power and more noise than you like…only some local shops are as good as the national companies, so it just depends on who you have in your town.

I have a 5. It was cool at first, but is wearing on me and I need to quiet it down some. The stock muffler is a funky design baffled , for I get hot exhaust out of one pipe and cold out of the other.

I have done some research and I was wondering if I went with smaller pipe 2. Would going with two single turbo style mufflers and an h-pipe be better in reducing the sound? My guess is that the pipes are too big…a dual 2.

Dropping down to 2. That aside, the best way to change the sound is go swap out the muffler. Would I get more sound attenuation by using a single large suitcase muffler or two turbo mufflers? The stock system has a single suitcase after the cats and resonators at the tailpipes. If I go with dual mufflers, I will definately need a cross-over of some sort.

I just bought a F with the 5. Do you have any comments or suggestions? BTW, I am looking for something that will not produce a noticeable difference in sound while idling or cruising, but will let you know I am there when I get on it. To learn more about vs stainless, see this page: Doing a little research, it seems like the cheaper option is loud just to be loud.

It sounds like the more expensive system is what I am looking for not noticeable at idle or cruising, only when I get on it. The cam is a comp H. So, therefore, what is your opinion? However, a really nicely tuned is going to put out hp, and according to this page — http: What does your header manufacturer recommend?

Hey Guys, rather than replace the whole exhaust system with a 2. The muffler is straight through and has the exact same size pipe connected to the muffler.

The muffler has great sound and power however I notice a problem. I am looking at my gas mileage reader and I gained nearly 6 to 10 mpg, I am thinking great however I notice that I am killing more gas. I have read threads that says people are stepping on the gas to much but I am not since I have learned the hard way. How is it that I gain mpg but I am killing gas than unusual?

I mean the piping is the same except its straight through muffler only. Angel — There are a lot of items that effect fuel economy. Its a v6 so would a dual exhaust be ok or should I stick with the dual in single out set up? I am new to this exhaust thing so, your expertise is much appreciated. I have a Toyota Vios AT. Is it possible to change to dual exhaust and with what size and accessories?

If it is not recommended, then what modification is best to bring out some performance? Luis — Is buying a new muffler really out of the question?

Seems like your the person to talk to about this seeing the crazy amount of questions you answer. My question is in regards to Jeep Cherokee I just purchased.

If you decide to replace things and money is no object, there are a lot of great 4. I have a nissan xterra, 3. As far as exhaust goes, I have deleted the stock muffler and replaced it with a aluminum thrush welded single in single out muffler.

I have had it installed for a year, and I have noticed a tone change, its now deeper. Im not complaining, I just want more. The stock pipe size is 2. From the cat I want to jump to a 2.

And finishing it with a 3. Now I have heard that the size tip can make a slight change. What do you think and suggest about my scheme of things? Your truck is probably at or very close to hp, and going from 2.

That kit is made for my year vehicle. I was unsure that by going dual if that would be too much air flow. I now have a short ram intake system. However, as a general rule, larger tubing on smaller displacement motors hurts low-end torque. I have a grand marquis 4. I want to run true dual exhaust on it. What is a good pipe size? I removed 4 cats and installed 2 new ones.

Jesse — See this page for the answer to your question: Robert — As a general rule, changing your exhaust system configuration has no effect on the reliability of your engine. I want to make a knowledgeable decision and want to avoid damaging the truck. Hi Jason i have a 98 c5 Corvette and i swich my exhaust to a slp loudmouth exhaust and i fill like i have lost horsepower Can this happen by swiching to a aftermarket exhaust..??

What can happen, however, is that an over-sized system can rob some low-end torque. I do have a chip ordered for it and will be putting a cold air system on it as well. Freddy — Unless that true dual system is on the small side see this page for advice on how big your tubes should be — http: When tubing gets too big, you lose low-end torque.

My advice is to stick with the dual setup, but go with an appropriately sized set of tubes. Thanks for the help Freddy. Hey, I have a Ford F custom that im almost done restoring. And I want to buy headers for it, and I was wondering what brand to chose. Also I was wondering if I could got with 1inch something piping? I want it to crackle and pop and scream. If you could help me, that would be great! Hi I just bought a brand new mercedes c coupe with the AMG sports package and i regret not buying a c as the single exhaust really annoys me and makes it look like a girls car.

How would I go about on making it dual exhaust? Will I lose power at all as it is currently a 4 cylinder 1. You could also just hang a piece of tubing and leave it unconnected…the effect would be the same a 4cylinder engine does NOT need a dual exhaust.

Thanks for the response Jason that was very fast haha. You also mention tubing, I was going to do that in the first place but the fact that no smoke will be coming out of it also bothers me haha. I accidentally read your post and wanted to give you my personal thoughts. The biggest difference you come to think of between a C and a C is the fact that the C has got a rather dull in-line 4-cyl engine, while the C has a V6 engine with alot more exciting exhaust note as well as alot more power.

Then again as Jason says, adding a dual exhaust for the C could possibly compromise with low-end torque and power. Second, my girlfriend has a C 4-cyl with the single-sided exhaust setup and despite the small petrol engine, the exhaust tip gets quite dirty and almost black over time, which will make it even more visible that the other not connected exhaust tip is fake if you have one, also when the car is parked.

And then again, just the other engine you get in the C makes that choice much more interesting in the first place. So if I were you, I would really consider the C Either do it with a Y-pipe to small inch pipes, or leave it as it is. If you from the beginning contemplated between the two cars and the C was a choice within reach, I would personally still trade-in the C and get a C I get exactly what you mean and the thing is that when I went to get a car from the benz dealer ship, I had no idea what I wanted.

I walked in and looked around and picked up the c 3 hours later so it is basically my fault for not being patient and considering the two cars. On the other hand, the reason why I picked out the c coupe was because of the amg package they had with the red interior, body kit, and amg rims which makes the car look really nice. I had no idea that the came with the same package otherwise I would have picked that instead and the sales person did not inform me of this.

Hm, I guess your C Coupe was brand new from factory when you bought it? Yup, they do lose alot of value as soon as you start it up and drive it out of the dealership. You could aswell put away money for saving for a year or so before getting a new car.

But the thing with brand new cars is that they lose value very quick.. I have a Kia Sorrento lx 3. I have put on exhaust on every car truck or suv I have ever had and always got good or great results.

So I was wondering if anyone on here could give me their thoughts on why the gas mpg went down on it? Also if the muffler shop put it on backwards could that be the problem? Mike — How much of a drop in fuel economy are we talking about? It could also be a result of the engine reprogramming itself. Verify that everything is installed correctly and 2.

Reset the engine computer by disconnecting your car battery for 30 minutes. Then, we you start over, drive easy so the engine can re-learn. I recently bought a Mazda 6 i 4 cyl automatic. However, I would love to add some power. In terms of making more power:. The company that designs them will choose the correct size. As for other performance tips, programmers are great. Hello, I have a Ford Mustang with a 4. I currently have a dynomax catback which replaces the y-pipe with a x-pipe that goes from 2.

I am not happy with the fitment or quality of this system and plan on replacing it with a Flowmaster stainless catback. Now the Flowmaster is 2. My question is would this be more optimal for my daily driver and help give back some low end performance, and would it suit a supercharger down the road rated to make rwhp? For the time being it would only get a air intake and a tune on it. If they have some long-tube headers you might have more fun driving to work every day.

My 09 Mazda 6 2. The stock exhaust runs on a single 2. Now according to the chart included in the link below, a 2. If I do upgrade to a 2. Or would it be okay to just change the piping from the rear axle? If you go with a 2. As far as the exhaust do I have to replace the entire stock system or can I get the same results just going from the cat back? And should I go for dual or single? Nick — Catback is fine, and many truck owners prefer single exhausts, as the dual setups can sometimes trade a reduction in low-end torque for an improvement in top-end performance.

Great thanks for the info I was kinda hoping single was the way I should go but would I see better results going from the manifold back or would they be the same as going from the cats back. Having said that, if your catalytic converter is old and potentially clogged, replacing it can be good. I would greatly appreciate your help.

Lots of short on farm uses. It needs a new tailpipe and muffler. I would like to minimize gas consumption. It has a single exhaust pipe. I will need to keep it street legal, but its my understanding that vehicles over 20 years old do not have to pass emissions tests.

Hi there, i have a Honda Accord V6 3. All of these changes were done at a professional muffler shop who said that all of these changes wont compromise performance and if anything will increase performance due to less restrictions.

But when i drive it after the modifications, the car seems to accelerate less quickly and have slightly less power. Its just a tiny feeling which im not even sure is true or not. Is loss of power possible? Or is it because now my car sounds much louder that it has a placebo effect causing an illusion that the engines working harder with not much acceleration?

My car is HP stock if that helps. Looking forward to hearing an explanation thanks: The bullet mufflers i put on were supposed to greatly increase airflow and thus lift restrictions so should put up greater performance…. By the way Tim bilyeu, did the fact that the cabin noise due to your louder exhaust seem to make your stereo sound less punchy.

Seems to be cancelling some of my music frequencies so that the music seem of less quality.. Read all the threads. And you have great advice. I have 99 olds aurora 4. I cut the mufflers off. And it lost power I think. Takes longer to shift in to gears then before the cut off. I just went and purchased two thrush welded. Mike — First, thank you.

Having said that, you need mufflers to be street legal in most areas…so maybe you should just put those Thrush mufflers on and call it good. I want to put a turn down tip right after the muffler and expel exhaust to under the chassis.

All vehicles allow a small amount of air into the cab from the undercarriage, which means that you might start breathing exhaust gases if your truck is idling for a long period of time, and if your windows are closed, AND if the climate control system was off. As well, the muffler is situated over the back seat rests meaning once a new tip is put on it, the tip will be below the box rather the cab.

I have a Crown victoria…What would u recommend for it? My cats are done so im going to go with the pipes. I want nice deep roar but not to expensive. HEy guys I got a dodge ram with the 4. And know a muffler shop that will build a custom y pipe for me? Im wanting it to come out at an angle right under the bumper duals and rwason being is with the turn down its popping and doesnt sound good at all to me it sounds like an old Cadillac with the muffler rusted out firing on 3 cyclinders right now lol.

I have z HR dual engine stock that has been running great but i want to change the sound only. I have replacd only the muffler with a straight that has the same size pipe as stock. However i am killing gas. Even though i gain mpg i still killing gas with only a straight through muffler. People say i step on the gas too much but that is not the case since i drive the same with the stock setup. And to my prove my case i reinstalled the oem muffer and i notice that i have not been killing gas compare to the straight through muffer.

What can i do to change the sound of the exhaust wiith sacrificing the mpg? I dont really care about performance but only sound. I have been driving slow with the new muffler that I end up causing traffic on the road. Heck even slower than driving with my oem muffler.

Another example, is when I have the oem muffler it takes my days to fill up but with the straight through muffler it takes days. It is as if I got a v8 car but really a v6. I know this is weird, but I have also experience the same thing with my old Trailblazer that I use to have. This is why I think the exhaust is a waste of money unless you know the problem that I can fix so that I can get a muffler or an exhaust that for sound only not affecting the performance nor the sound….

Angel — It could be that the new after-market systems are dramatically over-sized for the system, and thus become a hinderance. Most systems have minimal impact all the way around. Its a muffler designed for my z, which is oem size except its straight through. Nothing seemed clogged since its brand new and flows freely by the way it sounds and flows.

And since this was not the first time i experienced low mpg with my aftermarket exhauts but i have experienced exhaust mpg loss from my trailblazer since i tried three different types of exhuast. The only one that seems the best in keeping the mpg jigh is stock but i rather just change the sound as my only preference.

I want to know if the piece up front is also a cat or if its just a y pipe to connect it. So i also wanna knowthat thanks fire any help. Troy — Cutting off cats without replacing that section of exhaust can certainly cause problems.

I have a Lincoln ls v8, hp stock 3. Jason-I just recently purchased my first diesel truck, I live in Africa so its a little Toyota Hilux pickup 4cyl Diesel no turbo. The MPG is pretty good for heavy traffic conditions approx 22mpg but its a bit sluggish in the sand and accelleration. Plus the cabin noise on the open road is a bit loud. I plan on putting an after market cone air filter on it but I was curious about straight piping it.

Would be benefit a little 4 banger diesel? I wouldnt mind better sound at the tail i just dont want it in the cab. I have a turbocharged saab 4cylinder. Steve — That sounds like a lot of exhaust system to me. Did you look at this chart for reference?

What about just mounting 2. I got a nissan frontier 02 first generation 3. Just curious if you think. Id loose power or gain verses a single or dual exhaust thanks. Just be sure to check the chart I linked to in my response to Steve above. I got a Chevy Tahoe, 5. I want to put dual exhaust with possibly an X muffler not sure exactly what it is called, but I have heard good things about them and was wondering what size of pipe I would have to put on and also would it do more harm than good? I heard sometimes it can cause you to lose power when running dual exhaust on a vehicle if not done right.

Michael — See this chart: I have a silverado 5. Does that muffler flow too much? I did question the exaust man about it he recommended the super See our size chart here: Clint I know a dual 2. I bought a new F with the 5. My question is should this work, and will it effect my engine since I only have about 3, miles on it and its not quite broke in yet? Todd — The muffler will have no effect on your engine.

I have a jeep srt8. I was thinking about taking out the suitcase muffler and installing a flowmaster 40 series. I was also thinking about removing the resonators and put straight pipes on. I thought resonators are just for sound to reduce cabin noise.. If you start adding or removing parts, you could end up hurting performance.

The reasons are explained in the article and in other comments above. Hi, I have an 08 silverado 4. I have a mercury grand marquis it has two dual cats that run into a Y pipe into a single outlet. Would it make a difference to make it dual all the way out with flowmasters?

Or would leaving it the same with a single flowmaster be the same benefits? Randy — Single vs. Just make sure to buy the right sized muffler. I have a 06 silverado 5. Does anyone know more about these QTP exhausts? Regardless of why you want them, they pose no risk to your engine. You may find, however, that your street car pulls a little harder when the cut-outs are NOT engaged. Often times street cars produce more low-end torque with an exhaust system than without one.

Say if I were to add on a flowmaster super 40 out of the electric cutout, would I see even a small increase in hp over the stock muffler? The QTP cutouts are designed to let you run without a restriction at the touch of a button. Can my car be turned into a dual exhaust using a Y pipe or is there no room under the actual car for the Y pipe and new exhaust piping. Or even would it produce enough power for the Y pipe dual.

This sorta goes off question one as well… currently I have the 2. I am wanting to increase my piping size to 2. I do not know much about piping so i need some insight on the differences and if they can do it on my car.

I am sorta new to the car terminology and looking for a fun project. I wanted to get some bigger piping for much louder deeper tone. I am not looking for performance, just sound really. Its a stratus, it will never be that great. Also, if i were to even get 2. Just a thought if that would be a good idea as well.

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