Exercises to Reduce Erection Problems
Calcium deficiency hypocalcaemia - this has been identified as a metabolic disorder especially in newborn babies which may bring on seizures. The spike recorded by a transmembrane micropipette from the muscle. This loss of carbon dioxide triggers symptoms such as gasping, trembling, choking and the feeling of being smothered. Medical Hypothesis, 67, The practice of proper breathing techniques is aimed at eliminating misused accessory chest muscles, with more emphasis on diaphragmatic breathing.
Understanding the Science of Nicotine Addiction
Well we treat the contents of this correspondance as a training course. Here, we are informed that: Here's a harsh but i believe fair paragraph: Reading this letter over and over again will not ultimately rid you of your inappropriate anxiety, all that does is tell you exactly how to do it. Just like a learning to drive, you can read as much as you can, but a some point you will choose to get in the car start actually driving, head straight for the rest-digest roads and wonder what the hell you were ever worried about.
Pick up the keys. Reading this letter over and over ultimately represents just another coping mechanism, a compulsion ritual, an addict's crutch.
Let's take a quick look at the reason: Time for another example, take this sentence: Whenever we experience Panic, Anxiety, Negative Thoughts, Bad Feelings we must accept that there is nothing wrong with us and get on with our lives, only then can we tell ourselves in the first language of the Limbic System that it is time to switch off the Fight-Flight response. Once we do that we will be well once more" That's a fine paragraph and an important concept to understand.
What happens if we read stuff like this every day in an attempt to recover without actually facing our fears? In all benefit, we are changing the meaning of the outcome, we are redefining anxiety which is essentially the bedrock of anxiety based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy , and mapping out a path of recovery. This does has some benefit, but not enough. In all detriment, repeatedly re-reading such advice results in us constantly reminding ourselves of the high anxiety condition.
Whenever we experience Panic , Anxiety , Negative Thoughts , Bad Feelings we must accept that there is nothing wrong with us and get on with our lives, only then can we tell ourselves in the first language of the Limbic System that it is time to switch off the Fight-Flight response. Now look at this: Doctor Bobby has a hobby, He takes it all in hand, Round and round and up and down, Gets Bobby feeling grand.
OK, apologies, at best this is a crudely written doggerel about masterbation, but on the plus side it does not contain any anxiety reminders. Can a doggerel be intentionally written?
In all honesty, I'm glad I overthought it. Over-thinking is not always bad, its only bad when we choose to direct all our attention towards an entity incorrectly labelled as negative. If we did this, then the anxiety would naturally vanish and we would no longer feel the compulsion to solve something that is no longer an issue. So, which is the best choice material to read to escape the clutches of anxiety once we understand anxiety?
Yes, Doctor Bobby's poetic bio, every time. You are a strange yet emphatically wise man, I would warmly shake you by the hand, but can we first use the Dettol wipes? We need the information that these constructs provide but once we have the information we need to break free. You choose your time frame in which to do this. Get further assistance if you feel you need to, we are not robots. The reason for this is that curative knowledge of anxiety is relatively new and we still inherit the heritage of insufficient nomenclature.
All that matters is that you are able to differentiate between good information and for want of a better term 'arse-talk'. Bobby and a computerized masturbating Mr. The more we try, the harder we try, the more often we try. The quicker we recover. As ever, your choice. The truth is that it is perfectly normal, and indicative of a healthy mind. The trick is to not be scared of these feelings.
How do we remove fear? By understanding what is happening. Unreality is merely the perceptual result of the correct response to anxiety. It's all part and parcel of the fight-flight response. The brain is scanning at high speed all the surroundings, it is working at such a speed that not all the sensory information is 'used', only the information pertinent for survival is processed.
You are standing in your kitchen in front of a big freshly baked cake, your perception takes in the lovely smell, the warmth that the fresh cake is generating, the rumbles from your belly in anticipation of eating such a home made masterpiece. You stand in front of the same cake, you brain is analyzing for danger, the lovely smell of the cake is unnecessary, the anticipatory rumble of your belly is unnecessary, ie, you filter out all the nice bits.
It feels bad because it's designed to be and you start looking for an exit. Let's look at it as a simple equation: Look at this from ancestral perspective. It would be detrimental if you were still preoccupied with the smell of the mammoth steaks when you need to be looking for a quick exit. In anxiety 'disorder' you have to do the following, realize that all the nice bits are still there, they always have been, you just need to look for them.
When this level is lowered the unreality will begin to dissipate. Once you have done it once it will give you the confidence to invite and accept the unreality as a new opportunity to accept it and ignore it. After a few 'setbacks' and subsequent 'recoveries' you will be bubbling with confidence which will bring you back to relaxation. Another way of looking at it is this: This is certainly a strange feeling, but a just a harmless and completely beneficial feeling nonetheless.
I'll say that again It is a VERY good thing. The ability to pretend comes from one cerebral fact. You are so much bigger than your anxiety. The wonderful world in which we live is so much bigger than anxiety. It contains numerous techniques and philosophies. It demonstrates the initial wrong assumptions we manifest and the initial wrong turns we take. It also describes how we eventually attain our freedom. A Quick Refresher You now know that stressful situations initially cause anxiety sensations, and these anxiety sensations spook us.
The simple midbrain then remembers that we were spooked and puts us into a state of high alert; this state of high alert then produces additional feelings and sensations which spook us even further and we enter the cycle.
The fear of fear keeps this whole situation ticking over. The midbrain then believing it is doing us a favour by staying on alert keeps checking for sensations. It manufactures these feelings and symptoms and in turn keeps us on high alert when we react negatively to them. What a perfect defense mechanism!! How do we escape from Alcatraz? Firstly it is not at all necessary to escape; many people live out wholesome fulfilling lives without ever leaving, they are wonderful friends, wonderful parents, wonderful children … wonderful people.
But if we do want to escape: What is responsible for determining the anxiety setting? YOU are keeping yourself anxious by feeding back 'anxiety stuff' through your senses. Anxiety etc is not an assailant, it is protection, protection you don't need. The Limbic system does not know the difference between a real and pretend threat. The Solution The Limbic system does not know the difference between a real and pretend response. It's hardwired in all of us. Let go to Alcatraz This Alcatraz Analogy was written to enable you to easily visualize each aspect of your anxiety-based disorder.
It of course includes the permanent escape solution. The simple Limbic 'brain' notices that we were spooked and puts us into a state of high alert; this state of high alert then produces additional feelings and sensations which spook us even further and we enter the cycle. The limbic brain then believing it is doing us a favour by staying on alert keeps checking for sensations.
What a perfect defense mechanism! When I was experiencing my own anxiety based disorder, it helped me tremendously to visualize the whole construct in this inescapable scenario.
I like a challenge. I gave each element of the anxiety disorder a strong characterization within the story based upon the rules and limitations which constrain that element. You will notice that the only character that does not have to operate under any limitations is you.
Your anxiety operates under system of strict rules and unchangeable limitations, you have no such limitations, nor will you ever have.
This analogy also demonstrates that what we first imagine to be impossible escape becomes very possible, very achievable and very logical. Firstly it is not at all necessary to escape; many people live out wholesome fulfilling lives without ever leaving. They are wonderful friends; wonderful parents; wonderful children; wonderful colleagues; wonderful people.
The more we fail the more practice we get. The more practice we get the less we fail. Let me introduce the cast: The Island Prison with its bars and walls are the limitations you incorrectly assign for yourself simply based upon fear of what might happen should you try. You hate being in Alcatraz but at least for most of the time you are safe in your cell. The placement of you within the Island Prison is your anxiety-based disorder. Limbic is the Autonomic Nervous System.
His job description inside the prison is simple, to keep you safe. He can move fast, his reaction speed far exceeds yours, every time anyone has run for an exit, he has easily stopped them.
He is just doing his job, and boy-o-boy he is the ultimate professional. You are rarely disobedient always call him 'Sir'. Sonny keeps insisting that not only is escape impossible, but very harmful; he constantly reminds you what Mr.
Limbic might do if you don't comply with all the prison rules. Sonny 'Whatif' Smith is an exceptionally fast thinker and this frustrates you greatly, he never stops chatting, and this annoys you hugely. In any situation his advice arrives well before you have had time to even consider your options. He simply wants you to survive your time in prison. He is predictable because of the following truth: Sonny and 'Limbic' are your ticket out of here.
In order to return to the mainland you must convince Sonny he is wrong by demonstrating to Mr Limbic that the Island Prison cannot harm you. To do this we are going to have to put on a brave face for a few days. The letter details the rumour that some people have escaped from Alcatraz before.
Every time you ask the mailman how they escaped you receive the following answer "Shhh, it's a secret" and big secrets round here cost big money. Money you don't have. Your earning power has diminished considerably since your arrival. If only someone would just tell you. If you escaped you would certainly let your fellow inmates know how it was done. Questions pour though your mind: Did the escapees get hurt when escaping? How long did they take to escape?
Is there a secret tunnel? Did they get help from the outside? Did the Guards help them? Is it all a con? Did it actually happen?
No one seems to know, and those who do, don't seem to want to tell. These letters make you feel even more desperate. They only serve to remind you that you are still imprisoned. They are amazing people, the bravest of the brave. The City Residents are the people you 'view' as normal, conventional, healthy, having an easy life. No one is better or worse than anyone else, both on the island and on the mainland. Every prison has one. He is your Doctor.
Your medication is his supply of prison hooch. He can provide you with a map of the entire prison complex if you ask him. He will help you plan your own escape. He may help you escape the Island Prison completely, or he will simply point you in the right direction. Your Release Papers The thing you crave more than anything else in the world. You get these when you remove your anxiety-based disorder.
They don't arrive instantly because it takes a short time for the red-tape administration to be completed. The red tape administration is simply your brain creating relaxing links and deleting anxious links. The Goal Escape from Alcatraz, take your Sonny with you, get Mr Limbic a new nice stress-free job, and then ultimately free all the other prison inmates.
You vaguely remember arriving at Alcatraz, although you can't quite remember how or why you were sent here. Was there a court case?
Was it mistaken identity? Did you do something bad? You have spent many long nights chatting to 'Whatif' Smith about the possible reasons of your incarceration, as you can imagine 'Whatif' Smith has many opinions on this. You are the most important character, you make all the decisions. The Shouts For Help You shout for help through the bars to the outside world, but the shoreline of San Francisco is miles away and your desperate pleas evaporate through the high winds and bitter rain.
You can just make out the skyline city lights. A place where The City Residents live their lives oblivious to the hardships that Alcatraz serves up in plain sight of their wonderful and exciting metropolis.
Constant Self-Checking keeps you aware of the Island Prison. The more you shout for help, the more the lights malfunction and your cellblock heater randomly blasts out choking hot air or a painful acrid rasps. The Faint Whisper You hear footsteps outside your door and fear fills your cell. Straining to hear, you can just make out a faint whisper from a strange but friendly voice passing your cell door: The Responsibility and Ownership of Your Situation.
Each brass key is in pristine condition. Each key is labelled. A quick analysis shows you that you have the key to your own cell, the partition bars, the canteen, the library, the showers, the toilets and the workshop.
You search through your memory to find out keys are missing. The only keys you do not possess is to the cells of your fellow inmates and the boiler room. What does that mean? Having the keys is not enough, you think Alcatraz is a terrifying place. You sit in your cell, place the keys on the table and consider your options. The choice is yours. To leave, or not to leave, that is the apprehension. Or, as I have come to know it, an opportunity. Now you realise that you will not be rescued, you ultimately have to do it yourself.
At this point you can call on the Jones's assistance. He's a good buddy to have in this situation. He can help take your mind off your worries and give you the breathing space to make a good decision, he will help you consider all your options based on his encyclopedic knowledge of prison life.
Decisions, Decisions You stare at the set of keys for hours, days, weeks, longer, wondering what to do. All that time Sonny pleads with you not to do anything rash, he tells you every negative scenario that could occur if you were to pick up the keys, and boy he is creative. But we know that Sonny is always wrong. It does not matter how long you leave the keys on the table, when you are ready to pick them up you will do so, you will be scared but it's OK to be scared, in fact it is necessary.
Why is it necessary? We need the presence of fear to enable us to desensitize ourselves to its effects. Looking Out Of the Cell Door Finally and full of fear you pick up the keys, turn them in the lock, open the door and visually scan the harsh metallic gangplanks adorning the atrium outside your cell door.
If you need a slug of Jones's hooch to pluck up the courage to do this that's fine. If not then that's also fine. On first inspection the whole environment seems too ominous, even the silence has an eerie echo, your heart starts thumping, your mind gets dizzy, your vision goes haywire, your stomach butterflies dance to a queasy rhythm and sweat pours from your hair. You banshee-scream back into you cell and slam shut your steel door.
You get a dressing down from Sonny who gives you his best list of 'what ifs' to date. He's not called 'whatif' for nothing!
Boy can he talk! You are still scared but decide to have a little look around. Limbic orders you back to your room. The fear in his voice causes your sensations to multiply and you run back to the cell. You replay the scenario over and over in your mind. What actually happened to you? Nothing at all, apart from being scared there was nothing. No shank toting muggers. What is Limbic up to? Walking the Communal Areas in Full View of the Guard A few days later, you try again this time you want to know what would have happened if you ignored Mr.
Is this what bravery is? You bet your backside it is and you are not turning back now. You step out with more confidence than before and stand nose to chin with your guard, he is still barking the same old orders.
You've had just about enough of this jobs worth, so you answer "Oi Limbic! As you walk around you realize there are still no riots, no gangs, nothing. The corridors and gangplanks are empty. A closely following Limbic is confused and keeps bellowing the same orders over and over.
You ask him why he keeps shouting. You realize that in order to escape, all you have to do is to outwit the slow witted Limbic and ignore the completely predictable Sonny. You are still a bit scared but you are determined. You walk the corridors and gangplanks of your prison and Limbic walks along side and tries to block your path at each intersection. You look directly into his professional eyes, and then walk around him until he learns that it is there is no point in blocking your path.
This is still a scary sensation for you, but at least you are not confined solely to your cell any more. Later, you confidently return back to your cell to tell Sonny of your progress. You have unlocked your door and walked the prison interiors and nothing he warned you against came true.
You were not attacked, you were not harmed in any way and you got to know Limbic a bit better. At this rate, it won't be long until Limbic is bringing you a cup of tea and telling you to put your feet up.
The more scared you are of him the more he barks, the more you ignore him, the more he assists you in relaxing. Your Constant Self-Checking now starts to incorporate this new understanding into its observations, it starts to become your ally. Every time you find yourself analyzing your anxiety level. It seems a bit lower.
You are keen to check the boiler room. The boiler room is your energy levels; this small but powerful coal driven power station is your adrenal glands. You take a look through the locked gates.
It's a very hot, very noisy and powerful place. You look closely at the gate. None of your keys will work in this door. You are amazed at how much power the boiler room produces. You notice that its power distribution system and the lighting panel have been wrongly calibrated by Limbic. But nonetheless you decide not view this situation with fear but rather with objectivity. You know with slight tweaks to its calibration settings, the heating system would not be too hot or too cold, the air conditioning would function and lights not be too bright, too dull or flicker constantly.
But in the end you decide that as you know the source of these 'discomforts' you decide to make the best of a bad situation and accept your current climate, its uncomfortable yes, but that's all it is As you exit the boiler room you still notice the heat and light variations of the whole prison complex but now you know the source of the problem you will not fear your surroundings as much as you did yesterday.
You remember your strong desires for life on the mainland where you know every building has correct environmental control settings, but decide that you can live hear a while longer. Limbic is quite confused by now, he tries every fear trick in the book to stop you but when you enter he makes you a cup of tea and hums a relaxing melody. You open the frosted glass door have a quick look around the plush office and head straight for the filing cabinet.
Your prison record is your mental and physical health. You have a sneak peek at our own file and a wash of realization surges through you. You read your file and see that you have committed no crime. There is nothing wrong with you! You cast confused expression at another prison file, you see that this person has committed no crime either; you hurriedly scan through file after file and see the same word repeated again and again: You read through his section on building calibration.
You realize that all this time he was trying to help you. You take a look through the Staff filing cabinet and find Limbic's impressive CV. He wasn't always the best guard in west coast penal history. Before he worked in Alcatraz he was a relaxation therapist.
What a truly amazing man, not only can he perfectly protect you in times on extreme danger, he can chill you out more than hot banana pudding, a glass of Penderyn and the Requerdos De La Alhambra.
Back to the Cell You rush back to your cell to tell Sonny. The Sunshine on the Prison Garden For your next outing you decide to visit the prison garden, it's been so long since you ventured outside then you have forgotten the way. Limbic expertly navigates your route through the prison. You, Sonny and the amazing Mr. Limbic walk out of the walls of Alcatraz and stand in the sunshine. This is the first time all three of you have shared a common experience for quite a while.
You are all enjoying the sun and you stand in unison with the hint of a smile on your faces. You accept your prison because it is nowhere near as bad as you originally thought. You spend many fulfilling days walking around the island and are happy to return to your cell knowing you can have a good day tomorrow too.
Yes the environmental controls are a bit screwy. Yes The Guard is an odd fellow. Yes Sonny can be a whining doom monger. Yes you are still in prison but at least you are making the best of it. Your Cellmate still gives you safety advice from time to time, but nowadays he complains less and less, he too is starting to become confident. As stated, in order to escape, all you have to do is to outwit Limbic and ignore Sonny.
If we get Limbic to chill out, then Sonny won't be scared of him! Getting Limbic to chill should be a breeze now, we know he used to be a relaxation guru. You have heard from Sonny of all people that your release papers are imminent. But in the meantime you keep yourself busy. Exploring Your Island Further You walk on the rocks and climb unoccupied sniper towers to gaze upon the Pacific, your fears of the ocean start to become overwhelmed by your amazement at its magnificence.
Sometimes you peacefully walk alone; sometimes you walk with your companions. Sometimes you even run back to your Cell. You can get sustenance from the canteen and read books from the library; you make furniture for your cell in the workshop and plant crops in the vegetable garden. Release Papers You live happily for a short while until one day Mr. Limbic presents you with your release papers and offers to pilot a launch to the shore.
True to form, he gives you the papers the moment you truly accept the Island Prison as 'Home'. You decide that on this occasion to listen. You know that you can return whenever you want. The Boat to the Shore Mr. Limbic leads you and Sonny down to the jetty, there is a boat awaiting you. All your memories of arrival make perfect sense. The method to escape the island is the same as the method that brought you here in the first place.
Across the stern and sign-written by a steady and artistic hand is the name of the boat. One word, lower case, understated and in white: Limbic knows his prison guard days are behind him. He needs a purpose and you are now the one who writes his job description, you always have been. It's time for him to return to the days of being a relaxation guru. He skillfully pilots you and Sonny towards the shore of the city, is there nothing he can't do!
All three of you look with wonder at the opportunities and possibilities that the city will present. As your launch skips across the blue-green waters Sonny can only think speak of good things. Of course he can, his mood is completely dictated by Mr. Limbic's mood is completely dictated by your senses. You dictate what you feed to your senses. You are out of Alcatraz; you rescued an exuberant and optimistic Sonny, and have the amazing Mr. Limbic as your personal assistant for the rest of your long happy days.
San Francisco You become once again a fully useful member of the city. There are times when you look upon Alcatraz island and remember vividly the times you spent there, sometimes with fear, sometimes with fondness for the wisdom provided.
You become caught up in the thrills and spills of city life once again. You have reached the goal. You've escaped once, next time you would simply walk straight through the front doors. Sonny's what-if words hold no currency with you any more, they simply remind you of what an amazing thing you did. They give you confidence. It is impossible for you to fear Alcatraz ever again. Simply because you understand it.
You are free forever, you are cured forever. Sometimes it brings back the sad and painful memories. But each time you visit, it is on your terms, every corner you look around, every stairwell you walk and every gangplank you stand upon gives you more confidence. Your painful memory associated with each location and situation is slowly overwritten with new a new memory of more recent visits. The more you visit, the more you understand; you even consider a job as a tour guide as you know the more time you spend here the less of the bad times you remember.
You find yourself actually wanting to spend more time within this stunning piece of functional architecture. As you walk down the corridors, you think deeply on the journey you have taken. You become compelled to help someone else. You don't want your mail delivered by 'Debit' the Mailman. New negative thoughts in the mind are like deer tracks in the woods, the more they are used the more trodden down the deer tracks become, soon other animals and people start to use these path ways, these path ways become bridal ways, these bridal ways become B roads, then A roads, then Motorways.
One method of removing the thought is to change the meaning of anxiety to what it truly is; a beneficial tool for survival. Sticking with the above example the subsequent pattern emerges, as the reality of the reassurance outcome is realized the motorway becomes less used because we do not fear the outcome and returns to being the deer track, and eventually this pathway is bypassed completely by a new beneficial pathway.
Know that thoughts are harmless; I viewed my negative thoughts in the same way as I would watch subtitles on my television set. They are merely thought patterns. I learned not to fight the thoughts, but simply accept them. They would come and go; it took me a while to let them flow freely in and out of my mind. But once I did this the vicious circle began to fracture. You only have to eliminate one of these for the circle to dissipate.
It is true that one of the hardest aspects of dealing with any anxiety-based disorder is the issue of the negative thought. What is a negative thought? Any creative thought with a detrimental outcome. They pander to the three main fears of the human self. Fear of physical death Fear of psychological death Fear of social death. These thoughts seem to pop into our conscious minds without warning or invitation, they can be extremely distressing. They can make us feel like we are no longer in control and often promote notions that we are somehow 'losing-it'; going 'mad'; becoming severely mentally unstable; having a nervous breakdown or experiencing massive cognitive thinking collapse.
Don't worry none of these are true. There is nothing wrong with you, there never has been anything wrong with you, you are completely fine. My own condition caused me to experience negative thoughts every fifteen seconds of every waking hour regardless of where I was.
Consequently, there were many occasions when I would wrap pillows around my head to deaden the sounds whilst in a protected foetal position and be literally screaming. Not my finest hour considering there was never anything wrong with me. But nothing to be ashamed of either considering this is a very common reaction to severe anxiety-based disorders.
I was what I believed to be under attack from a part of my sickeningly-crazy mind which was hell-bent on my own mental, physical, social and emotional destruction.
I was of course completely and utterly wrong. You can see that it often is difficult to see-the-wood-for-the-trees. If it is difficult for the traditional well-read and intelligent psychologist to grasp the big picture, you can bet your cat that in the midst of an anxiety disorder where everything but scary protection based thoughts are filtered-out due to them being incorrectly categorized as non-pertinent it seems almost impossible.
During my early days of exceptionally high anxiety, I remember reading a government mental health help booklet that briefly discussed the existence of the persistent negative thought. I was presented with a new murky character called the Unhelpful Thoughts Mugger.
The name given to this character is simply the result of the incorrectly perceived nature of the thoughts themselves. I can't blame the author for that, that is exactly how these thoughts initially seem. You are busy going about your day and bang! Essential oils for can be used in number of ways to boost your energy levels. I believe inhalation is the best way to use these oils for this purpose. You can blend different oils or use them individually as per your convenience.
If you want to use one of the blends of these oils, then mix the essential oils of your choice in a dark glass bottle with an eyedropper cap. Add only a couple of drops of the essential oils at a time. Roll the bottle between your hands to make sure that the oils are mixed properly. In order to know which blend suits you the most, it is necessary to do a bit of experimentation. Always keep a record of the essential oils you have used in a particular blend and their quantity.
Once your blend is ready to use, here are different ways to inhale these oils and benefit from them:. It is packed with stimulating oils to give you that extra push you need to stay productive. There are a few ways to use this Energy Blend. Add about 15 drops of this blend to 5 oz. Spray the blend on your linen or in the air to use as an air freshener. Alternatively, consider adding a few drops of this same blend to your bath water for a refreshing bath.
You can also dilute this blend in a carrier oil such as jojoba oil and use as massage oil or rub on your wrists and back of your neck. In a small bowl that is non-reactive, add 4 oz. Next add drops of this blend. Massage all over your body. Use as much of this mixture as you like in your aromatherapy diffuser and diffuse throughout your living area. You can use both these blends either in a diffuser or as massage oil. I have also tried using them in bath and the results were amazing.
While essential oils can help you feel more productive, energetic and alive, do realize that there is limit to the relief they can bring.
If the reason behind the fatigue you are experiencing is some underlying health issue, you should expect only short-term relief. While physical exertion may be the major cause of fatigue, poor nutrition, low blood pressure, hormonal imbalances, depression and emotional stress are few other things that can cause fatigue. And yes, do not forget using essential oils to make your treatment more effective and less painful for you.
Get rid of all that negative energy with recipe 2 — works wonders. Love using that blend for a massage or for diffusing. It is really confusing to me, can you please make this clear thank you! I am also a […]. Studies have shown that essential oils such as peppermint, lemon, orange have a myriad of benefits.
Diffusing or sniffing it straight from the bottle can give you a natural […]. Ginger oil is one … […]. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. The parasympathetic system not only restores balance, but also performs other important functions in reproduction, rest and sleep, and digestion.
Each division uses different neurotransmitters to perform their actions- for the sympathetic nervous system, norepinephrine and epinephrine are the neurotransmitters of choice, while the parasympathetic division uses acetylcholine to perform its duties. Neurotransmitters of the Autonomic Nervous System Neurotransmitters Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Acetylcholine preganglionic fibers preganglionic fibers; postganglionic fibers at synapses with effector cells cholinergic Norepinephrine postganglionic fibers at synapses with effector cells adrenergic The above chart describes the major neurotransmitters of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
There are a few special situations that should be noted: Some sympathetic fibers that innervate sweat glands and blood vessels within skeletal muscles release acetylcholine Cells of the adrenal medulla are closely related to postganglionic sympathetic neurons; they secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, similarly to postganglionic sympathetic neurons Receptors of the ANS The following chart depicts the receptors of the ANS, including their location: Receptors ANS Division Location Adrenergic or Cholinergic Nicotinic receptors parasympathetic ANS both parasympathetic and sympathetic ganglia; muscle cells Cholinergic Muscarinic receptors M2, M3 affect cardiovascular activity parasympathetic M2- located on the heart acted on by acetylcholine ; M3- located on the arterial tree nitric oxide Cholinergic Alpha 1 receptors sympathetic mainly located on blood vessels; mainly located postsynaptically Adrenergic Alpha 2 receptors sympathetic located presynaptically on the nerve terminal; also located distal to synaptic cleft Adrenergic Beta 1 receptors sympathetic lipocytes; conduction system of the heart Adrenergic Beta 2 receptors sympathetic mainly located on arteries coronary and skeletal muscle Adrenergic Agonist and Antagonist In order to understand how certain drugs affect the autonomic nervous system, it is necessary to define certain terms: Sympathetic agonist sympathomimetic - a drug that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system Sympathetic antagonist sympatholytic - a drug that inhibits the sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic agonist parasympathomimetic - a drug that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic antagonist parasympatholytic - a drug that inhibits the parasympathetic nervous system One way to keep the terms straight is to think of the suffix -mimetic as meaning "mimic"; in other words, it mimics the action.
Responses to Adrenergic Stimulation Adrenergic responses in the body are stimulated by compounds that are chemically similar to adrenalin. Norepinephrine, which is released from sympathetic nerve endings, and epinephrine adrenalin in the bloodstream are the most important adrenergic transmitters.
Adrenergic stimulation can have both excitatory and inhibitory effects, depending on the type of receptor on the effector target organ: For example, when faced with a threatening situation, it makes sense that your heart rate and blood pressure will increase, breakdown of glycogen will occur to provide needed energy and your rate of respiration will increase.
All of these are stimulatory effects. On the other hand, if you are faced with a threatening situation, digestion will not be a priority, thus this function is suppressed inhibited. Responses to Cholinergic Stimulation It is helpful to remember that parasympathetic stimulation is, in general, opposite to the effects of sympathetic stimulation at least on organs that have dual innervations- there are always exceptions to every rule.
An example of an exception is the parasympathetic fibers that innervate the heart- inhibition causes slowing of the heart rate. Sympathetic nerves stimulate constriction of blood vessels throughout the alimentary tract, resulting in decreased blood flow to the salivary glands, which in turn causes thicker saliva. Parasympathetic nerves stimulate the secretion of watery saliva.
Thus, the two divisions act differently, but in a complementary fashion. Cooperative Effects of Both Divisions Cooperation between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS can best be seen in the urinary and reproductive systems: Reproductive system- sympathetic fibers stimulate ejaculation of semen and reflex peristalsis in females; parasympathetic fibers cause vasodilation, ultimately resulting in erection of the penis in males and the clitoris in females Urinary system- sympathetic fibers stimulate the urinary urge reflex by increasing bladder tone; parasympathetic nerves promote contraction of the urinary bladder Organs Without Dual Innervation Most organs of the body are innervated by nerve fibers from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
There are a few exceptions: How does the body regulate their action? The body achieves control through increasing or decreasing of the tone of the sympathetic fibers firing rate. By controlling the stimulation of sympathetic fibers, the action of these organs can be regulated.
Stress and ANS When a person is placed in a threatening situation, messages from the sensory nerves are carried to the cerebral cortex and limbic system the "emotional" brain and also to the hypothalamus. The anterior portion of the hypothalamus excites the sympathetic nervous system.
The medulla oblongata contains centers that control many functions of the digestive, cardiovascular, pulmonary, reproductive and urinary systems. The vagus nerve which has both sensory and motor fibers supplies sensory input to these centers through its afferent fibers. The medulla oblongata is itself regulated by the hypothalamus, the cerebral cortex and the limbic system. Thus there are several areas involved in the body's response to stress. When a person is exposed to extreme stress picture a terrifying situation that occurs without warning, such as a wild animal poised to attack you , the sympathetic nervous system may become completely paralyzed so that its functions cease completely.
The person may be frozen in place, unable to move. They may lose control of their bladder. This is due to an overwhelming number of signals that the brain must "sort" and a corresponding tremendous surge of adrenalin. Thankfully, most of the time we are not exposed to stress of this magnitutude and our autonomic nervous system functions as it should!
It is sometimes caused by failure of baroreceptors to sense and respond to low blood pressure caused by blood pooling in the legs.
Horner syndrome- symptoms include decreased sweating, drooping eyelid and pupil constriction affecting one side of the face. It is caused by damage to the sympathetic nerves that supply the eyes and face. Hirschsprung's disease- also referred to as congenital megacolon, this disorder features dilation of the colon and severe constipation.
It is caused by a lack of parasympathetic ganglia in the wall of the colon. Vasovagal syncope- a common cause of fainting, vasovagal syncope occurs when the ANS abnormally responds to a trigger disturbing sights, straining at stool, standing for prolonged periods by slowing the heart rate and dilating the blood vessels in the legs, allowing blood to pool in the lower extremities, resulting in a rapid drop in blood pressure.
Raynaud's phenomenon- this disorder frequently affects young women, causing discoloration of the fingers and toes, and occasionally the ears and other areas of the body. It is caused by extreme vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels resulting from hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system. It is often precipitated by stress and cold. Spinal shock- caused by severe injury or damage to the spinal cord, spinal shock may cause autonomic dysreflexia, characterized by sweating, severe hypertension and loss of bowel or bladder control resulting from sympathetic stimulation below the level of the spinal cord injury that is unchecked by the parasympathetic nervous system.
Autonomic Neuropathy Autonomic neuropathies are a collection of conditions or diseases that affect sympathetic or parasympathetic neurons or sometimes both. They may be hereditary present from birth and passed down from an affected parent or acquired later in life. The autonomic nervous system controls many body functions, therefore autonomic neuropathies may cause any number of symptoms and signs that may be elicited through exam or laboratory studies.
Sometimes only a single nerve of the ANS is affected; however, physicians must watch for development of symptoms stemming from involvement of other areas of the ANS.
Autonomic neuropathies can cause a wide variety of clinical symptoms. These symptoms are dependent upon which nerves of the ANS are affected. Symptoms may be widely variable and can affect almost all body systems: Alcoholism- chronic ethanol alcohol exposure may lead to impaired axonal transport and damage to cytoskeletal properties.
Alcohol has been shown to be toxic to both peripheral and autonomic nerves. Amyloidosis- in this condition, insoluble proteins are deposited within various tissues and organs; autonomic dysfunction is common in both primary and hereditary amyloidosis. The immune system wrongfully identifies body tissues as foreign and attempts to destroy them, leading to widespread damage to nerves. Diabetes-neuropathy occurs commonly in diabetes, affecting both sensory and motor nerves; diabetes is the most common cause of AN.
Multiple system atrophy-this is a neurological disorder causing degeneration of nerve cells, causing alterations in autonomic functions and problems with movement and balance. Nerve damage- nerves may be damaged as a result or trauma or surgery, resulting in autonomic dysfunction. Medications-medications used therapeutically to treat other disorders may affect the ANS. The following are some examples: Drugs that increase sympathetic activity sympathomimetics: Diabetes is by far the largest contributing factor to AN and puts individuals with the disease at high risk for AN.
Diabetics can reduce their risk of AN by controlling their blood sugars carefully to prevent damage to their nerves. Smoking, consuming alcohol regularly, hypertension, hypercholesteremia high blood cholesterol and obesity may also increase the risk of developing AN, so these factors should be controlled as much as possible to reduce the risk of developing AN.
Treatment of autonomic dysfunction is largely dependent on the cause of AN. When treatment of the underlying cause is not possible, physicians will attempt various therapies to mitigate symptoms of AN: Integumentary system- itching pruritis may be treated using medications or may be combated by moisturizing the skin, which may be the primary cause of pruritis; hyperalgesia of the skin may be treated with medications such as gabapentin, a medication used to treat neuropathy and nerve pain.
Cardiovascular system-symptoms of orthostatic hypotension may be improved by wearing compression stockings, increasing fluid intake, increasing salt in the diet and medications that regulate blood pressure i.
Tachycardia may be treated with beta blockers. Patients should be counseled to avoid sudden position changes. Gastrointestinal system- patients may be counseled to eat small, frequent meals if they have gastroparesis. Medications may sometimes be helpful in increasing motility i. Increasing fiber in the diet may help with constipation.
Bowel retraining is also sometimes helpful for the treatment of bowel issues. Diarrhea is sometimes helped by antidepressants. Eating a diet that is low in fat and high in fiber may improve digestion and constipation.