Treating Prostate Cancer

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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
More information about The Ritalin Conspiracy, and about the Statin Scam that inhibit the production of cholesterol very effectively, but cholesterol is good for the body. Guest experts present some topics. Awareness can be heightened by auditing food safety management programmes. Fibers can also be categorized based on their physical and chemical properties as well as their physiological effects. This excludes external service providers.

Epidemiology

Exercise is Medicine

The total population of the bacterial catchment is FoodNet provides a network for responding to new and emerging food-borne diseases of national importance, monitoring the burden of food-borne diseases, and identifying the sources of specific food-borne diseases. FoodNet provides accurate and detailed surveillance information about those infections for which surveillance is variable or non-existent from state to state.

For more information see www. PulseNet reached full national participation in Public health laboratories in all 50 states routinely determine the molecular fingerprints of Escherichia coli O H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and regularly subtype common serotypes of Salmonella; standard protocols have also been developed for subtyping a growing number of other food-borne pathogens.

Rapid electronic comparison of strain patterns in state and national databases provides early detection of clusters of related infections, guiding investigations, and verifying control. PulseNet identifies potential outbreaks that otherwise would have been missed, particularly those that are widely dispersed. Identifying and investigating such outbreaks can identify system problems in food safety, so that they can be corrected.

For example, with the regular use of PulseNet, the frequency of detected outbreaks of listeriosis in the United States has increased from one every five years to two per year, focusing attention on critical points of control within the food safety system.

Food-borne outbreak investigations are a critical part of the food safety system. New and recurrent food-borne hazards can be rapidly identified by investigation of food-borne outbreaks. Careful investigation of an outbreak, including tracing the food from farm to table and reconstructing the means of contamination, is critical to move the food safety agenda forward when new hazards emerge.

Most outbreaks are investigated and controlled by local and state health departments. Information is shared within legal constraints, and information received from other organizations is used to improve analysis and respond to problems. Well-trained personnel enhance surveillance, and FDA relies strongly on State and local authorities for quality surveillance information. EOC conveys proper alerts through various mechanisms to respond effectively to these situations, as needed.

There is a hour toll-free number for public health partners to call which routes the caller to the appropriate officer. Distribution of information through the Epi-X network is to promote rapid communications of recent outbreaks and other health events among local, state, and federal health officials. Epi-X carries reports of disease events outside, as well as inside, the United States. This dissemination of international health information promotes further surveillance of these conditions in the United States, as well as follow-up collaborations with foreign authorities dealing with these health events.

It is regularly used to disseminate information by the Agency. For example, for a food product that is recalled because there is a reasonable probability that use of or exposure to the product will cause serious health consequences or death referred to as Class I , and is exported, notification will be provided to the counterpart authorities.

It enables health officials to assess risks and analyze trends, and it provides the necessary infrastructure for an early-warning system that identifies potentially hazardous foods. At present, there are laboratories representing 49 states that are part of the eLEXNET systems with 62 laboratories actively submitting data. We are continuing to increase the number of participating laboratories.

NARMS monitors antibiotic resistance of select food-borne pathogens isolated from clinical settings both human and animal and the antibiotic resistance of isolates from foods.

The system was initiated in in response to public health concerns associated with the approval of fluoroquinolone products for use in poultry. NARMS monitors changes in susceptibilities to 17 antimicrobial drugs of zoonotic enteric pathogens from human and animal clinical specimens, from healthy farm animals, from carcasses of food-producing animals at slaughter, and from isolates from samples of retail foods. The system includes a veterinary arm, a human arm, and a retail food monitoring arm.

The CCMS investigations have led to recognition of outbreaks, voluntary recalls of adulterated products, and changes to specifications of school lunch products. This system is currently undergoing an enhancement which will allow early recognition of complaint patterns that may indicate unusual or intentional events. As such it is also a surveillance system, allowing FSIS to react to the presence of pathogens considered adulterants with the appropriate public health regulatory response, as well as to provide a rough estimate of the prevalence of specific pathogens on particular products.

Timely alerts via current notification processes are needed. Effective exchange of information is difficult when countries do not carry out the same methods and procedures or do not use the same set of standards. Many non-industrialized countries lack the resources to conduct meaningful surveillance, and even the countries that undertake surveillance may be using different methods and have different standards. These countries need trained staff in government, as well as adequately staffed and equipped laboratories and trained health care professionals, to identify and report diseases.

Establishing consistent laboratory methodologies, laboratory training, emergency preparedness training and procedures, database development, further assistance for developing countries, and strengthened communication networks are key strategies to advance the status of international food-borne disease surveillance. Identifying and exchanging specific contact information for specific products with other countries and developing agreements to cross-train with pertinent foreign officials would improve international information exchange.

Some countries could also provide training, equipment, and technical support to international organizations, as well as to individual countries. Surveillance of food-borne diseases should be given a high priority in the development of a food safety infrastructure.

Building capacity for public health laboratories to conduct laboratory-based surveillance and to conduct epidemiologically-based surveillance are important global public health objectives. The needs of developing countries should be particularly considered. There is a need to be proactive in establishing one or more sentinel sites for food-borne disease in developing countries.

There is also a need to develop and coordinate a global approach to strengthen surveillance at national, regional, and international levels. Current surveillance is dependent upon physicians and clinical laboratories reporting illness and specific diagnosed infections.

Thus, an improvement would be increasing the capacity of laboratories to identify specific pathogens and developing mechanisms to facilitate reporting of specific diseases. The ongoing support of interagency collaboration, international surveillance, and scientific research is crucial in preparing the international community to deal with food-borne disease in the global market place.

Food-borne disease surveillance within individual countries is important to track and to monitor domestic food-borne threats to public health. Collected information, including active and passive reporting from sub-jurisdictions e. Within individual countries, the surveillance arm of government must coordinate with the regulatory arm of government to enforce food safety standards.

These internal food safety networks support global surveillance, communication, and coordination. Formal programmes include Global Salm-Surv a global network of laboratories and individuals involved in capacity building for surveillance, isolation, identification, and antimicrobial resistance testing of Salmonella and the European Commission Health and Consumer Protection weekly reports from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed RASFF.

One goal of RASFF is to provide individual control authorities with an effective tool for exchanging information on food safety measures. Yet, formal international food-borne disease surveillance communication is limited. Much of what is shared has been dependent upon relationships that people at various agencies developed over the years with colleagues in other countries. Efforts are emerging to strengthen international food-borne disease surveillance.

There is a more general WHO disease surveillance programme called Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, a data mining software developed by the Canadians. A number of international links can also be found at www.

Another international electronic tool for food-borne disease information is ProMed, which reports on international health issues multiple times a day. Below are more details on some of the specific international collaborative efforts. Assisting foreign governments in investigation of large or unusual food-borne outbreaks when requested, providing reference laboratory consultations, and assisting in specific disease surveillance projects in other countries.

This includes the training courses. Facilitating the replication of the PulseNet molecular subtyping network internationally in Europe, the Asia Pacific region, and in Central and South America. This includes assisting with technical consultation and participation in training.

Extending a communication network for food-borne epidemiologists in the United States, to include Health Canada and the central hub of EnterNet a cooperative arrangement among European countries. Providing consultation and botulinum antitoxin for suspected cases of botulism to other western hemisphere countries through an agreement with the Pan American Health Organization PAHO.

Establishing the Field Epidemiology Training Programmes FETP , which assists foreign governments in establishing epidemiologic competence in disease surveillance and outbreak investigation and control and fosters international collaboration and communication among its trainees. At present, FETP is active in almost 20 countries. Developing and disseminating the SafeWaterSystem, a point-of-use drinking water disinfections strategy that can be in homes, clinics, and places of food preparation to provide safe water for drinking, washing hands, and preparing food.

Global Salm-Surv is part of WHO's effort to strengthen the capacities of its Member States in the surveillance and control of major food-borne diseases and to contribute to the global effort of containment of antimicrobial resistance in food-borne pathogens. Since , institutions and individuals in human health, veterinary, and food-related disciplines have participated in Salm-Surv activities, such as regional trainings for microbiologists and epidemiologists, external quality assurance and reference testing, an electronic discussion group, and a web-based databank containing an annual summary of laboratories.

Over the next five years, Global Salm-Surv plans to improve its regional coverage with new training courses in Central Asia, Eastern and Southern Africa, Brazil, and Europe, encourage participation in the External Quality Assurance System and in Focused Regional or National Projects, expand to other food-borne pathogens Campylobacter , produce training manuals in microbiology and epidemiology, and establish regional centers.

For more information see: This has facilitated early interventions in food-borne outbreaks in terms of investigative procedures and public health prevention strategies, thus preventing additional illnesses and possibly saving lives. A feasibility study of PulseNet Europe was completed for three food-borne pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E.

The results of this study were presented and discussed at a workshop held in Paris, France on 16 June PulseNet Europe was successful in obtaining funding from the European Union for Through interactive brainstorming sessions, the benefits and challenges of forming PulseNet Asia Pacific were discussed, an action plan for the establishment of the network was developed, and a Steering Committee for this network was formed at this meeting.

Several countries Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and New Zealand have already established PulseNet networks and are beginning to actively perform real-time subtyping of food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Issues related to funding for establishing and maintaining a central PulseNet database for the Asia Pacific network and for coordinating activities of the network are still to be addressed.

The participants expressed overwhelming support for the establishment of PulseNet America Latina. Public health microbiologists from six countries Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Uruguay, and Venezuela were trained in the first workshop. The European Community's RASFF was established to provide control authorities with an effective tool for exchange of information on measures taken to ensure food safety.

Whenever a member of the network has information relating to the existence of a serious direct or indirect risk to human health, this information is immediately notified to the Commission under the RASFF. The Commission immediately transmits this information to the members of the network. Without prejudice to other Community legislation, the Member States immediately notify the Commission under the rapid alert system of:.

To assist the members of the network, information is classified under two different headings, Alert Notification and Informational Notifications. Alert Notifications-Alert notifications are sent when the food or feed presenting the risk is on the market and when immediate action is required.

The notification aims at giving all the members of the network the information to verify whether the concerned product is on their market, so that they also can take the necessary measures. Consumers can be reassured that products subject to an alert notification have been withdrawn or are in the process of being withdrawn from the market. The Member States have their own mechanisms to carry out such actions, including the provision of detailed information through the media if necessary.

Informational Notifications-Informational notifications concern a food or feed for which a risk has been identified, but for which the other members of the network do not have to take immediate action, because the product has not reached their market.

These notifications mostly concern food and feed consignments that have been tested and rejected at the external borders of the EU. Consumers can be reassured that products subject to an information notification have not reached the market or that all necessary measures have already been taken. The Commission publishes a weekly overview of alert and information notifications.

As it is necessary to strike the balance between openness and the protection of commercial information, the trade names and the identity of individual companies are not published. This is not detrimental to consumer protection, as a RASFF notification implies that measures have been or are in the process of being taken.

WHO is the implementing agency for the contributing institutions located in over 70 countries around the world. GEMS' purpose is to compile data on food contamination and human exposure from different countries for global synthesis, evaluation, and presentation. In , GEMS began developing a new data structure and protocols for the electronic data submission. The protocols involve encoding and formatting data in a manner compatible with the database maintained at WHO headquarters. Protocols for aggregate and individual data on contaminant levels in specific food commodities include descriptions of the data fields needed to ensure complete, quality electronic data submissions.

Uniform implementation and wide accessibility of the GEMS system make it a model for expanded, international food surveillance efforts. While there are no all-encompassing international surveillance systems, examples that serve to illustrate the value of such systems have been illustrated. The structure, function, and interactions between each country's government agencies form the start of an eventually global surveillance, regulatory, and protective framework to curtail the transmission of food-borne diseases.

Ultimately, WHO, as the lead international public health organization, could be the focal point of such a global surveillance framework. WHO and FAO, through their collective food safety capability, including the WHO Food Safety Department and the FAO Food Standards Programme, could, with the provision of adequate financial and staffing resources, provide the organizational and scientific capability to support a global food-borne disease surveillance system.

The Forum may wish to consider the following points regarding international cooperation on food contamination and food-borne disease surveillance. Are there other major programmes and international activities that should be brought forward?

Are elements missing from these strategies? What strategies should be pursued to better enable international cooperation on food-borne disease surveillance? How best can their role be enhanced in this area? Farming and nature exercise a profound influence over each other. Farming has contributed over the centuries to creating and maintaining a variety of valuable semi-natural habitats.

They shaped an important part of landscapes worldwide and are home to many of the world's richest wildlife. Farming also supports a diverse rural community that is not only a fundamental asset of international culture, but also plays an essential role in maintaining the environment in a healthy state. Farming is an activity whose significance goes beyond simple food production. Throughout the production chain processes occur that can have an impact on the natural environment and consequently, directly or indirectly, on human health and development.

For example, heavy use of pesticides and fertilizers, incorrect drainage or irrigation practices, a high level of mechanization or unsuitable land use can produce environmental degradation. However, abandonment of farming activities can also endanger the environmental heritage through loss of semi-natural habitats as well as biodiversity and landscape associated with them.

Likewise, the effect of agricultural production systems on human health directly farmer's occupational health or indirectly consumer's health through food are increasingly being recognized as an integrated element in the broader evaluation of environmental risks related to agriculture.

The links between the richness of the natural environment and farming practices are complex. While many valuable habitats are maintained by extensive farming, and a wide range of wild species rely on this for their survival, agricultural loss of wildlife can be the result of inappropriate agricultural practices and land use.

Discussions on possible future environmental effects of new technologies in food production will necessarily have to take outset in the present situation of agricultural effects on the environment, including derived effects on human health, recognizing that present trends of conventional agriculture are likely to be reflected in the objectives of modern food production. Agriculture adds to greenhouse gas GHG problems.

There are three main sources of GHG emissions from agriculture: N2O nitrous oxide emissions from soils, mainly due to nitrogen fertilization; CH4 methane emissions from intestinal fermentation, CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management. Measures being considered include: Further development of renewable, agricultural biomass could contribute to reductions in emissions from energy and transport, while benefiting the agricultural sector.

Water pollution by nitrates from agricultural sources, where improved agricultural practices are thought to improve pollution. Pesticides have been proven to have an effect on the environment and ecosystems by reducing biodiversity, especially by reducing weeds and insects which are often important elements of the food chain e. In addition, human health can be negatively affected through direct exposure and indirect exposure, e.

Systems to reduce the need for pesticide use, especially integrated pest management, organic farming or in some cases genetically modified crops are increasingly investigated at national and international level [22]. Soil degradation processes such as desertification, erosion, decline in soil organic matter, soil contamination e. Such degradation processes can result from inappropriate farming practices such as unbalanced fertilization, over abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, improper use of pesticides, use of heavy machinery, or overgrazing.

Measures to prevent soil degradation include support to organic farming, conservation tillage, the protection and maintenance of terraces, safer pesticide use, integrated crop management, management of low-intensity pasture systems, lowering stock density and the use of certified compost. Irrigation can also lead to environmental concerns, such as over-extraction of water from subterranean aquifers, irrigation driven erosion, soil salinization, alteration of pre-existing semi-natural habitats and, secondary impacts arising from the intensification of the agricultural production permitted by irrigation.

In recent decades, the rate of decline and even disappearance of species and related habitats, ecosystems and genes i. Declines in biodiversity are of direct consequence for food security when they affect food related organisms and relatives with relevance for breeding. Furthermore, intensified agriculture including modern breeding systems has resulted in significant reductions of landraces, adapted to local specificities as well as traditional knowledge.

Assessment of agricultural impacts on the environment requires the use of holistic models which are able to integrate multiple sources of information [23]. Previous scientific discussions have concluded that solutions applied at farm level contributed environmental problems but they are not adequate to the task of realizing long-term environmental goals.

This requires system innovations at higher levels of aggregation, involving, for example, looking for opportunities to negotiate recycling systems by linking sectors within agriculture and other areas affecting the environment, e. As a consequence of public discussion, new concepts for policies of agriculture and environment interactions have been developed in many countries including an improved public monitoring and responsibility for sustainability. Secretary-General Kofi Annan in June , is an international work programme designed to meet the needs of decision makers and the public for scientific information concerning the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and options for responding to those changes.

The MA focuses on ecosystem services the benefits people obtain from ecosystems , how changes in ecosystem services have affected human well-being, how ecosystem changes may affect people in future decades, and response options that might be adopted at local, national, or global scales to improve ecosystem management and thereby contribute to human well-being and poverty alleviation.

Work on agro-environmental indicators provided information on the current state and changes in the conditions of the environment in agriculture. It also resulted in a better understanding of linkages between the causes and impacts of agriculture on the environment, looking at agricultural policy reform, trade liberalization and environmental measures. This all contributes to monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of policies addressing agri-environmental concerns. Hazards can take many forms, wholly natural in origin or derived from human activities and interventions.

In the Convention on Biological Diversity CBD, ratified by countries defined a legally binding instrument for biodiversity protection and sustainable use of biological resources. The goal of the Convention on Biological Diversity is "the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefit arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.

Biological diversity is closely linked to human interests. Biodiversity is highly important for several quite different reasons: It provides a source of significant economic, aesthetic and cultural benefits. The well-being and prosperity of earth's ecological balance as well as human society depend directly on the extent and status of biological diversity.

Naturalism and nature protection: Some difficulties for environmental protection derive from different interpretations and understanding of the idea of nature. Especially in the consumer's debate on the creation of genetically modified organisms, the idea of the need to protect nature was often not well defined, mainly because of differences in the understanding of the concept of nature, ranging between concepts of wilderness, human environment, flexibility of natural systems [34] and ideas of naturalism.

Levels of protection may vary as goals range from sustaining ecosystem services to fully preserving endangered species or fragile protected areas. Biotic homogenization that decreases regional biotas and functional diversity would reduce resilience by reducing the available range of species-specific responses to such environmental changes as droughts, contaminants, or invasive species. The links between environmental protection and human health through the control of direct and indirect health effects of environmental deterioration needs to be factored into these equations, notably with food safety as one of the direct indicators.

Following adoption of hybrid breeding technologies further breeding objectives included methods for the introduction of increased genetic variability using several methods for mutagenesis such as chemical mutagenesis or irradiation as well as various ways of tissue cultures.

The further development resulted in the presently most advanced methods of modern biotechnologies, the production of organism by genetic modification using introduction of defined new or recombinant genetic material by vectors and transformation methods. These organisms are typically named Genetically Modified organisms or GM organisms.

Improved methodology for the development of GM organisms GMOs by homologous recombination may ultimately reduce the potential for unintended effects, including health effects, of the inclusion of new genes randomly in the genome, stemming from present technology.

Likewise improved methods for a molecular containment of recombinant genes may reduce problems of unintended gene dispersal. Conflicting assessments and incomplete substantiation of the benefits, risks and limitations of GM food by various scientific, commercial, consumer and public organizations have resulted in national and international controversy regarding their safe use as food and safe release into the environment.

An example is the recent debate on food aid that contained GM material offered to countries in southern Africa in This international debate has often been focused on human health and environmental safety of these new products.

At present, only a few food crops are permitted for food use and traded on the international food and feed markets. These include herbicide- and insect-resistant maize Bt maize , herbicide-resistant soybeans, rape canola oilseed and insect- and herbicide-resistant cotton primarily a fibre crop, though refined cottonseed oil is used as food. In addition, several government authorities have approved varieties of papaya, potato, rice, squash, sugar beet and tomato for food use and environmental release.

Further development of GM crops is likely to produce a range of GM crops with enhanced nutritional profiles. A significant proportion of these traits relates directly to human health, the beta-carotene Vitamin-A precursor rich "golden rice" as the most well-known example. Other examples with health implications are removing allergens and anti-nutrients, altering fatty-acid profiles and increasing the anti-oxidant content.

All new products related to such potential health benefits will naturally need to be scrutinized through thorough environmental and food safety risk assessments. An analysis of risks and effects of food production practices using modern methods of biotechnology needs to reflect on all developments in the area, based on knowledge of modern biology and keeping in mind that the definition of modern biotechnology is often not very standardized. Integrated pest management IPM needs to be seen in the light of modern biotechnology because of the use of advanced bio-technological methods: Definitions of IPM cover a range of approaches: Suitable pest control methods should be used in an integrated manner and pesticides should be used on an "as needed basis" only, and as a last resort component of an IPM strategy.

In such a strategy, the effects of pesticides on human health, the environment, sustainability of the agricultural system and the economy should be carefully considered. According to FAO, IPM programmes are designed to generate independence and increased profits for farmers, and savings on foreign imports for governments.

IPM enables farmers to make informed decisions to manage their crops. Sometimes also organic farming is discussed as a modern technology for food production, where farmers adhering to this idea are aiming for similar objectives like IPM but more clearly pronounce the ideas of integrity, self determination and co evolution.

Principles of the environmental risk assessment, ERA: In many national regulations the elements of the ERA for GM food organisms include the biological and molecular characterizations of the genetic insert, the nature and environmental context of the recipient organism, the significance of new traits of the GMO for the environment, and information on the geographical and ecological characteristics of the environment in which the introduction will take place.

The risk assessment focuses especially on potential consequences on the stability and diversity of ecosystems, including putative invasiveness, vertical or horizontal gene flow, other ecological impacts, effects on biodiversity and the impact of presence of GM material in other products. Internationally the concept of familiarity was developed also in the concept of environmental safety of transgenic plants.

Familiarity can also be used to indicate appropriate management practices including whether standard agricultural practices are adequate or whether other management practices are needed to manage the risk OECD, Currently the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is the only international regulatory instrument which deals specifically with the potential adverse effects of genetically modified organisms known as Living Modified Organisms LMOs under the Protocol on the environment.

The Biosafety Protocol covers transboundary movements of any genetically modified foods that meet the definition of LMO. But they objected, preferring vegetables pulses and water in accordance with their Jewish dietary restrictions. The king's chief steward reluctantly agreed to a trial. Daniel and his friends received their diet for ten days and were then compared to the king's men.

Appearing healthier, they were allowed to continue with their diet. Around BC, Anaxagoras stated that food is absorbed by the human body and, therefore, contains "homeomerics" generative components , suggesting the existence of nutrients. Salt , pepper and other spices were prescribed for various ailments in various preparations for example mixed with vinegar.

In the 2nd century BC, Cato the Elder believed that cabbage or the urine of cabbage-eaters could cure digestive diseases, ulcers, warts, and intoxication. Living about the turn of the millennium, Aulus Celsus , an ancient Roman doctor, believed in "strong" and "weak" foods bread for example was strong, as were older animals and vegetables. One mustn't overlook the doctrines of Galen: In use from his life in the 1st century AD until the 17th century, it was heresy to disagree with him for years.

Four elements earth, air, fire and water combine into "complexion", which combines into states the four temperaments: The states are made up of pairs of attributes hot and moist, cold and moist, hot and dry, and cold and dry , which are made of four humours: Galen thought that for a person to have gout , kidney stones , or arthritis was scandalous, which Gratzer likens to Samuel Butler's Erehwon where sickness is a crime.

In the s, Paracelsus was probably the first to criticize Galen publicly. Leonardo did not publish his works on this subject, but he was not afraid of thinking for himself and he definitely disagreed with Galen. Jan Baptist van Helmont , who discovered several gases such as carbon dioxide , performed the first quantitative experiment. Robert Boyle advanced chemistry. Sanctorius measured body weight.

Physician Herman Boerhaave modeled the digestive process. Physiologist Albrecht von Haller worked out the difference between nerves and muscles. Sometimes forgotten during his life, James Lind , a physician in the British navy, performed the first scientific nutrition experiment in Lind discovered that lime juice saved sailors that had been at sea for years from scurvy , a deadly and painful bleeding disorder.

Between and , an estimated two million sailors had died of scurvy. Around , Antoine Lavoisier discovered the details of metabolism, demonstrating that the oxidation of food is the source of body heat. Called the most fundamental chemical discovery of the 18th century, [30] Lavoisier discovered the principle of conservation of mass. His ideas made the phlogiston theory of combustion obsolete.

In , George Fordyce recognized calcium as necessary for the survival of fowl. In the early 19th century, the elements carbon , nitrogen , hydrogen , and oxygen were recognized as the primary components of food, and methods to measure their proportions were developed. In , François Magendie discovered that dogs fed only carbohydrates sugar , fat olive oil , and water died evidently of starvation, but dogs also fed protein survived, identifying protein as an essential dietary component. In the early s, Kanehiro Takaki observed that Japanese sailors whose diets consisted almost entirely of white rice developed beriberi or endemic neuritis, a disease causing heart problems and paralysis , but British sailors and Japanese naval officers did not.

Adding various types of vegetables and meats to the diets of Japanese sailors prevented the disease, not because of the increased protein as Takaki supposed but because it introduced a few parts per million of thiamine to the diet, later understood as a cure [39]. In , Eugen Baumann observed iodine in thyroid glands. In , Christiaan Eijkman worked with natives of Java , who also suffered from beriberi. Eijkman observed that chickens fed the native diet of white rice developed the symptoms of beriberi but remained healthy when fed unprocessed brown rice with the outer bran intact.

His assistant, Gerrit Grijns correctly identified and described the anti-beriberi substance in rice. Eijkman cured the natives by feeding them brown rice, discovering that food can cure disease. Over two decades later, nutritionists learned that the outer rice bran contains vitamin B1, also known as thiamine. In the early 20th century, Carl von Voit and Max Rubner independently measured caloric energy expenditure in different species of animals, applying principles of physics in nutrition.

In , Edith G. Willcock and Frederick Hopkins showed that the amino acid tryptophan aids the well-being of mice but it did not assure their growth. Babcock and Edwin B. Hart started the cow feeding, single-grain experiment , which took nearly four years to complete. In , Casimir Funk coined the term vitamin , a vital factor in the diet, from the words "vital" and "amine," because these unknown substances preventing scurvy, beriberi, and pellagra , were thought then to be derived from ammonia.

The vitamins were studied in the first half of the 20th century. In , Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis discovered the first vitamin, fat-soluble vitamin A , then water-soluble vitamin B in ; now known to be a complex of several water-soluble vitamins and named vitamin C as the then-unknown substance preventing scurvy.

In , Sir Edward Mellanby incorrectly identified rickets as a vitamin A deficiency because he could cure it in dogs with cod liver oil. Bishop discover vitamin E as essential for rat pregnancy, originally calling it "food factor X" until In , Hart discovered that trace amounts of copper are necessary for iron absorption. In , Albert Szent-Györgyi isolated ascorbic acid , and in proved that it is vitamin C by preventing scurvy. In , he synthesized it, and in , he won a Nobel Prize for his efforts.

Szent-Györgyi concurrently elucidated much of the citric acid cycle. In the s, William Cumming Rose identified essential amino acids , necessary protein components that the body cannot synthesize.

In , Underwood and Marston independently discovered the necessity of cobalt. In , Eugene Floyd DuBois showed that work and school performance are related to caloric intake. In , Erhard Fernholz discovered the chemical structure of vitamin E and then he tragically disappeared.

In , rationing in the United Kingdom during and after World War II took place according to nutritional principles drawn up by Elsie Widdowson and others. In , The U. Department of Agriculture introduced the Food Guide Pyramid. The list of nutrients that people are known to require is, in the words of Marion Nestle , "almost certainly incomplete". Some nutrients can be stored - the fat-soluble vitamins - while others are required more or less continuously.

Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients, or for some vitamins and minerals, too much of a required nutrient. The macronutrients are carbohydrates , fiber , fats , protein , and water.

Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilocalories often called "Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories.

Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galactose to complex polysaccharides starch. Fats are triglycerides , made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to a glycerol backbone.

Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids , some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally.

Some of the amino acids are convertible with the expenditure of energy to glucose and can be used for energy production, just as ordinary glucose, in a process known as gluconeogenesis. By breaking down existing protein, the carbon skeleton of the various amino acids can be metabolized to intermediates in cellular respiration; the remaining ammonia is discarded primarily as urea in urine. Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides , disaccharides , or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer sugar units they contain.

They constitute a large part of foods such as rice , noodles , bread , and other grain -based products, also potatoes , yams, beans, fruits, fruit juices and vegetables. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of sugar units. Traditionally, simple carbohydrates are believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore to raise blood-glucose levels more rapidly than complex carbohydrates.

This, however, is not accurate. Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals. Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four Calories kilocalories of energy per gram. However, in most circumstances it accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility. Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer which is indigestible as humans do not have the required enzymes to disassemble it.

There are two subcategories: Whole grains, fruits especially plums , prunes , and figs , and vegetables are good sources of dietary fiber. There are many health benefits of a high-fiber diet. Dietary fiber helps reduce the chance of gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and diarrhea by increasing the weight and size of stool and softening it.

Insoluble fiber, found in whole wheat flour , nuts and vegetables, especially stimulates peristalsis ;— the rhythmic muscular contractions of the intestines, which move digest along the digestive tract.

Soluble fiber, found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits, dissolves in water in the intestinal tract to produce a gel that slows the movement of food through the intestines. This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar.

Additionally, fiber, perhaps especially that from whole grains, is thought to possibly help lessen insulin spikes, and therefore reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. The link between increased fiber consumption and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer is still uncertain.

A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms , bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglycerides three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone. Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved.

Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded , so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length. Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated one double-bond or polyunsaturated many double-bonds. Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids.

Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans -isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called partial hydrogenation. There are nine kilocalories in each gram of fat. Fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid , catalpic acid, eleostearic acid and punicic acid , in addition to providing energy, represent potent immune modulatory molecules.

Saturated fats typically from animal sources have been a staple in many world cultures for millennia. Saturated and some trans fats are typically solid at room temperature such as butter or lard , while unsaturated fats are typically liquids such as olive oil or flaxseed oil. Trans fats are very rare in nature, and have been shown to be highly detrimental to human health, but have properties useful in the food processing industry, such as rancidity resistance.

Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids and always by expending energy to do so. However, in humans, at least two fatty acids are essential and must be included in the diet. An appropriate balance of essential fatty acids— omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids —seems also important for health, although definitive experimental demonstration has been elusive.

Both of these "omega" long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for a class of eicosanoids known as prostaglandins , which have roles throughout the human body.

They are hormones , in some respects. The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid EPA , which can be made in the human body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid ALA , or taken in through marine food sources, serves as a building block for series 3 prostaglandins e.

The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid DGLA serves as a building block for series 1 prostaglandins e. An appropriately balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 partly determines the relative production of different prostaglandins, which is one reason why a balance between omega-3 and omega-6 is believed important for cardiovascular health. In industrialized societies, people typically consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils, which have reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids along with too much of omega-6 fatty acids relative to omega-3 fatty acids.

Moreover, the conversion desaturation of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme deltadesaturase , which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin up-regulation and glucagon down-regulation. The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can influence processes involving insulin, glucagon, and other hormones; therefore, the ratio of omega-3 versus omega-6 has wide effects on general health, and specific effects on immune function and inflammation , and mitosis i.

Proteins are structural materials in much of the animal body e. They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each protein molecule is composed of amino acids , which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur these components are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in hair.

The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins protein retention and to replace damaged proteins maintenance. As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet. Excess amino acids are discarded, typically in the urine. For all animals, some amino acids are essential an animal cannot produce them internally and some are non-essential the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds.

About twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are essential and, therefore, must be included in the diet. A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids especially those that are essential is particularly important in some situations: A complete protein source contains all the essential amino acids; an incomplete protein source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.

It is possible with protein combinations of two incomplete protein sources e. However, complementary sources of protein do not need to be eaten at the same meal to be used together by the body. Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; including urine and feces , sweating , and by water vapour in the exhaled breath.

Therefore, it is necessary to adequately rehydrate to replace lost fluids. Early recommendations for the quantity of water required for maintenance of good health suggested that 6—8 glasses of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods. For healthful hydration, the current EFSA guidelines recommend total water intakes of 2. These reference values include water from drinking water, other beverages, and from food.

A daily lighting pattern that distinguishes between light and dark. The period of time between flocks that allows for the reduction in numbers of disease-causing micro-organisms within the barn or range area. A bird in its earliest stages of development following cleavage of the zygote and ending at hatching. The process of ending the life of a bird in a way that minimizes or eliminates pain and distress. It is characterized by rapid, irreversible unconsciousness insensibility , followed by prompt death.

A behaviour problem in domestic birds that involves a bird pecking or plucking the feathers of flock mates. The process of routinely checking flocks e. A system where birds are allowed access to an outdoor area when weather permits. A system where birds roam freely inside a barn but do not have outdoor access. A facility that receives hatching eggs from poultry breeder operations and cares for them through storage, incubation, hatching, processing, and holding.

A fertilized bird egg that is suitable for incubation and hatching. Beak trimming performed using the hot-blade HB method, either manually or with automated equipment. The act of keeping hatching eggs in conditions that are favourable for growth and development in order to hatch them. The point at which an animal no longer has the ability to feel pain or perceive and respond to its environment e.

IR Infrared Beak Treatment: Beak treatment performed using an infrared IR energy light. The on-farm killing of an entire flock or of a large number of birds. This can include recording the results of those observations 1.

A natural seasonal event in which birds substantially reduce their feed intake, cease egg production, and replace their plumage. Induced or controlled moulting is a process that simulates natural moulting and extends the productive life of breeders 2.

A specially designed device that propels a blunt bolt with great force that, when applied in the correct position, causes immediate loss of sensibility and results in death. A specially designed device used for stunning and euthanasia that, when applied in the correct position, causes immediate loss of sensibility and results in irreversible brain injury and death.

All individuals, including family members, who have responsibilities for working with or caring for hatching eggs or birds. This excludes external service providers. A set of actions, which may be recorded in writing, that have been thought of as a way to accomplish or achieve a desired outcome. A hatched young turkey; usually refers only to the first few days of life when the bird is still covered in down.

A young female domestic chicken that has not yet reached sexual maturity i. The outdoor area to which birds may have access from indoor production systems. The order whereby individual birds establish their dominance position within a group of birds. A rooster that is introduced to established breeder flocks during production.

The practice of undertaking the immediate day-to-day husbandry tasks associated with looking after birds. A process that physically alters toes on birds and that includes toenail clipping and toe trimming. A mature male or female turkey used for breeding to produce turkey hatching eggs.

A bird with a reduced capacity to withstand transportation and where there is a high risk that transportation will lead to suffering.

Management is responsible for setting and maintaining the priority for poultry welfare. Stockmanship is one of the most important determinants of poultry welfare. This responsibility rests with all personnel, those entrusted with the day-to-day care of birds as well as those contracted to perform specific duties e. Frequent, positive interactions with humans, even regular visual contact, have been linked to reduced fear and stress in birds 3. Before they are assigned their duties, personnel need to be knowledgeable of the basic needs of the birds entrusted to their care.

This can be accomplished through training, which may be formal or informal e. A Code of Conduct covering bird welfare must be developed and communicated. All individuals who work with or care for hatching eggs or birds must be competent in the tasks they are assigned. Personnel must be monitored and receive additional training as necessary.

Hatcheries are specialized facilities that receive fertilized eggs from poultry breeder operations and care for them through storage, incubation, hatching, processing, and holding. Hatcheries also perform various management procedures on eggs and newly-hatched chicks and poults to protect their health and prepare them for the growing phase.

This Code covers those hatcheries that incubate hatching eggs used in poultry meat production. Environmental or management problems during storage or incubation of eggs may cause premature embryo development, abnormalities, or even death 5 , all of which have obvious implications for bird welfare. It is for this reason that this Code includes recommendations for the handling and management of hatching eggs. Refer to Section 5. Proper handling, storage, and incubation of hatching eggs is important to promote healthy embryo development and to minimize embryo mortality.

Optimal hatchability is obtained when eggs begin incubation within 7 days of being laid 6 Hatching eggs must be transported, handled, stored, and incubated in ways that promote healthy embryos. Transfer is the process of moving eggs from the incubator to the hatcher, which occurs after embryos are sensible to pain. Eggs may be vaccinated or medicated at this stage Refer to Section 5. Damaged or contaminated eggs are removed; infertile eggs may also be removed.

Hatching eggs must be handled and transferred in ways that promote healthy chicks and poults. Eggs with the possibility of live embryos that are removed at transfer must be euthanized Refer to Appendix B - Methods of Euthanasia. After hatching, chicks and poults are removed from the hatchers and separated from the egg shells. Processing may include sexing, grading, vaccination and medication, and physical alterations Refer to Section 2. Assessing the viability of chicks and poults, including fitness for transport, is an important part of processing.

Some aspects of processing may be automated, so regular inspection and maintenance of processing equipment is important to ensure safe handling of the chicks and poults.

Chicks and poults, as well as boxes with chicks or poults, must be kept, treated, and handled in ways that prevent injury and minimize stress. Chicks and poults, as well as boxes with chicks or poults, must not be dropped from heights that may cause injury.

Chicks and poults must be inspected regularly to ensure that they appear, behave, and sound normal. Prompt action must be taken to identify and remedy the causes of chick and poult injuries. Injured or malformed chicks and poults that are suffering and unhatched live embryos not destined for further examination break-out must be euthanized as soon as possible, within 1 hour after completion of flock processing.

Chicks and poults must never be squeezed, except for the purpose of sexing by vent examination. All loose chicks and poults must be retrieved as soon as possible and at a minimum at every flock change.

Such physical alterations fall into one of two categories: For more information, refer to Section 6. Beak treatments remove the tip of the beak to help reduce feather pecking and cannibalism. Unlike hot blade trimming, infrared treatment uses an infrared energy light that is less painful 9.

Toenail clipping prevents birds from injuring other birds during mating and periods of high activity. When performing toe treatments, the objective is to remove the nail with minimal tissue damage.

Genetics and management may affect whether such alterations are of benefit for the specific birds on a given farm 9. Hatcheries should stay informed about the latest methods and equipment for performing procedures.

Physical alterations to beaks, toes, spurs, combs, and snoods must be reviewed and evaluated regularly for welfare improvements and to determine the need for these practices.

It is important that stress is minimized throughout the transport process and that chicks and poults arrive at their final destination in good condition.

However, hatcheries typically manage the entire transportation process due to the fact that they own and operate specialized equipment and employ the drivers; therefore, the condition of chicks and poults during transport falls within the scope of this Code, as well.

This Code also applies to situations where non-specialized equipment is used for the transport of chicks and poults. Chicks and poults possess energy and water reserves in the form of the yolk sac, which serves to sustain chicks and poults for a period of time after hatch 11 Depending on the strain, these reserves can sustain chicks and poults for up to 72 hours and, along with appropriate thermal conditions during transport, help to protect chick and poult health 11 It is the responsibility of the hatchery to ensure that chicks and poults are fit for the intended journey.

Fit chicks and poults are those in good physical condition and health that are expected to reach their destination in good condition. Boxes with chicks or poults must be moved smoothly and in such a way that the chicks or poults do not pile or become trapped.

Chicks and poults that are deemed unfit for transport must be cared for or euthanized. Appropriate environmental conditions must be maintained throughout the transport process to ensure that chicks and poults arrive at their final destination in good condition. Birds are typically housed indoors in free-run systems. Free-range systems, which allow access to the outdoors, can also be used. Housing needs to provide appropriate space, ventilation and temperature, and protection from predators.

Premises and equipment need to be maintained and cleaned to eliminate any refuge for rodents, wild birds, and other animals that could introduce diseases to the flock. Refer to Section 5 - Flock Health Management.

Poultry housing and its components must be designed, constructed, and regularly inspected and maintained in a manner that minimizes the potential for injury and allows for inspection of all birds. Refer to Section 4 - Feed and Water for additional guidelines on bird nutrition and hydration. Feed and water equipment must be maintained in good working order, and any defective systems must be attended to without delay.

Optimal temperature ranges are not the same for all birds or stages of production. Generally, birds can maintain their body temperature after the first few days of age through a variety of behavioural mechanisms, assuming that the ambient temperature is within certain limits.

Refer to Tables 3. Bird behaviour can be used as a reliable indicator of thermal comfort. Signs that indicate that temperature is too high include:. Temperature should be measured at bird level. For more information about managing the environmental temperature for chicks and poults, refer to Section 6.

Ventilation and Air Quality. Ventilation plays a key role in maintaining a comfortable and healthy environment for birds. Air quality is a complex issue, interacting with a number of important factors, such as bird size and age, stocking density, ambient temperature and relative humidity, dust, and ammonia levels. Ammonia is an irritant.

Domestic fowl are able to detect it at 5 ppm and concentrations greater than 25 ppm can cause short-term damage to respiratory systems and feet, and can lead to corneal ulcerations 8. Bird health and welfare may be compromised at ammonia levels as low as 10 ppm 8. It is important to use reliable tools to measure ammonia levels. High concentrations of carbon monoxide CO and carbon dioxide CO 2 can affect bird welfare and can even be lethal.

In an insufficiently ventilated barn, toxic CO may be produced. Both CO and CO 2 are odourless and colourless. Poultry housing must be designed and constructed in a manner that allows for good ventilation and air quality with respect to temperature, relative humidity, dust level, ammonia, and carbon dioxide.

Heating and ventilation systems must be inspected regularly and maintained in working order. Bird behaviour must be observed and necessary corrective action taken as soon as possible if birds are displaying signs of thermal discomfort. Action must be taken to manage ammonia levels if they reach a harmful range e. Good litter quality will help maintain air quality as well as reduce the incidence of litter-related problems, which can occur if litter is too wet or too dry. Litter that is too wet may lead to health problems e.

Litter that is too dry results in higher dust levels, which can lead to respiratory problems. Litter that is at the correct moisture level will compact loosely in the hand after squeezing. Litter that is too wet will compact tightly, whereas litter that is too dry will not compact at all.

Bedding or litter must be available to provide opportunities for birds to express normal behaviours e. Litter condition must be monitored daily and action taken immediately to improve poor litter conditions i. However, the use of radiant heat lamps results in constant exposure to light. Continuous light can negatively impact eye development of newly hatched birds and disrupts rest, which affects the synchronization of activities. Some chicks and poults continue to rest after arrival from the hatchery, while others seek out food and water.

An intermittent lighting program divides the day into resting and activity phases and can assist with synchronizing activity to stimulate food and water intake through group behaviour Synchronizing activity has been shown to promote better rest and can reduce the development of feather pecking by separating active and inactive birds. Providing a dark period for broiler chickens and turkeys controls growth early in life, which gives skeletal and metabolic systems a chance to develop before the birds get heavy Lighting programs also assist in managing the growth, onset of sexual maturity, and productivity of breeders.

Four hours or more of darkness per day results in significant improvements in welfare parameters as compared to hours of darkness 8. Chicks and poults must be provided with a minimum of 1 hour of darkness in each 24 hour period after 24 hours of placement, and the dark period must be gradually increased to a minimum of 4 hours in each 24 hour period by day 5 of placement.

From day 5 of placement through to no sooner than 7 days prior to catching, birds kept in barns must have a dark period of at least 4 consecutive hours in each 24 hour period. Light intensity must be adequate during the light period to allow birds to navigate their surroundings and for daily inspections e. Light intensity may only be reduced temporarily to correct abnormal behaviour. Light control systems must be inspected regularly and maintained in working order.

Optimal stocking density is significantly affected by housing factors, such as ventilation, litter management, and the method of delivery of both feed and water. Bird welfare and successful performance depend on the complex interaction of these and other factors, rather than on the observance of a single maximum stocking density allowance Bird weight is a key factor in planning appropriate stocking densities, which should be calculated using interior dimensions of the available barn space and the expected shipping weight of the birds.

Producers are encouraged to review the performance of previous flocks when determining target stocking densities for future flocks. Research on stocking densities for turkeys and breeders is limited. Birds must have enough space to move freely and be able to stand normally, turn around, and stretch their wings without difficulty.

Space allowance must be sufficient to allow all birds to be able to sit at the same time. The number of birds must not exceed that which can be accommodated by the available barn space and equipment e. Additional Requirements for Broiler Breeders. Additional Requirements for Broiler Chickens. Additional Requirements for Turkeys. Stocking densities for turkeys must not normally exceed limits contained in Column a in Table 3.

Stocking densities may be increased to limits contained in Column b in Table 3. Column b Conditional Maximum Stocking Density. Broiler and turkey breeder hens have a strong motivation to isolate themselves at egg-laying and to perform nesting behaviour.

A sufficient number of appropriately-sized nests for the strain and number of hens in each group must be provided. Improper handling, storage, or incubation of hatching eggs can cause unhealthy embryo development and mortality. Optimal hatchability is obtained when eggs begin incubation within 7 days of being laid 6 7. Environmental factors during egg storage that affecthatchability and chick and poult welfare includestorage time, storage temperature, relative humidity during storage, and flock age.

Refer to the specific storage guidelines provided by the primary breeder for the strain. In Canada, most chickens and turkeys are raised indoors, due to extremes in weather and the risk of predation and disease.

Providing outdoor access offers opportunities for environmental enrichment and increased exercise. There are challenges associated with raising birds in range systems, including pests, predators, risk of disease transmission from other birds and animals, and the difficulty of sanitizing the environment.

In cases where birds are raised with outdoor access, producers are responsible for ensuring that their needs are met and their welfare protected to the same extent as birds kept indoors. This Code recognizes, however, that the practical means used to achieve these goals may be different from birds housed indoors.

Shelters are provided to protect birds from inclement weather, and can include barns or other free-standing structures. Shelter must be provided to protect birds raised outdoors from inclement weather. The range area must provide sufficient shaded areas to accommodate the size of the flock.

Feed and water must be provided in a way that discourages access by wild birds. The outdoor range must be sited and managed to avoid muddy or unsuitable conditions; this includes the areas under the feeders and waterers. When birds have access to the range from a barn, barns must be designed to allow easy access to and from the range area for all birds.

Feed and water are important for welfare because they contribute to overall bird health and well-being. Working with a qualified advisor e. Nutrient composition, quantity, and availability of feed that is contaminant-free are all important components of the feed management system, as is access to feeders.

Recording feed and water intake is an important practice, since increases or decreases in consumption can be an early indicator of problems. The contamination of feed with mycotoxins poses a serious threat to the health and productivity of poultry Generally, younger animals are more susceptible to the toxic effects of all mycotoxins.

Birds must be fed a diet appropriate to their age and genetics, and which contains adequate nutrients to meet their requirements for good health and welfare. Feed and water must be acceptable to birds and free from contaminants at a concentration hazardous to bird health. Birds must be provided with fresh, potable water in sufficient quantities for normal hydration, health, and production.

Water must be tested at least annually, unless municipal water is used, to ensure its suitability for the birds and corrective action must be taken as necessary. Water must be monitored on an ongoing basis for any changes odours, rust, cloudiness that may suggest a change in quality. Broiler chickens and turkeys must have access to feed and water in sufficient quantities at all times in normal circumstances, up until the time of catching.

Interruptions for the purposes of vaccinations or water system maintenance or under veterinary instructions are acceptable. Turkey breeders must be provided with daily access to feed and water that maintains their health and meets their physiological requirements for health.

Additional Recommended Practices for Broiler Breeders. Additional Recommended Practices for Turkeys. Broiler breeders are genetically selected for high feed conversion rates, and therefore have the potential to grow very quickly 8. Allowing these birds free access to feed results in high body weights that can result in serious welfare problems, such as skeletal deformities which can, in turn, result in breast blisters and hock burns 8.

Maintaining optimal body condition is also important for egg laying, fertility, and bird health. In order to balance the risks to welfare, broiler breeders are usually prevented from feeding ad libitum.

Feed restriction begins at approximately weeks of age e. After breeders reach lay, restriction levels decrease 8.

Restricted feeding programs result in chronic hunger, which has an unavoidable negative impact on bird welfare. Controlled feeding programs can sometimes result in over-consumption of water as birds redirect their appetite to waterers, which can adversely affect bird health and welfare.

Therefore, access to water is sometimes restricted to certain times of day, taking into account environmental conditions. There is a complex interaction between genetics, husbandry, and environment that affects bird health and welfare. However, it is important to recognize the impact that selection for high productivity can have on the overall well-being of broiler chickens and their parent stock.

Genetics companies are encouraged to select for more moderate production goals that allow birds to be productive without having to be subjected to such extreme food restriction to protect their health. The industry is committed to support ongoing and new research into feeding strategies to minimize the impact of current genetics on bird welfare, and implement practical solutions as they become available.

The outcomes of these shared endeavours will inform the next Code revision. The body weight and uniformity of feed- and water-restricted birds must be monitored.

When controlled feeding is used to control excessive body weight gain during pre-lay, any interruption of feed must not exceed 48 hours. Water must be provided daily in sufficient quantities for normal hydration and in a manner that prevents over-drinking. Disease control is an integral part of bird welfare.

Good flock health management incorporates practices that are designed to optimize the health and welfare of poultry. Pain and discomfort caused by health issues impact bird well-being such that good welfare requires good health. An effective Flock Health Plan contributes to bird well-being by providing strategies for disease prevention, rapid diagnosis, and effective treatment.

Prevention of disease rather than treatment is better for bird welfare. Sanitation measures will help to prevent disease transfer from one flock to the next Isolating poultry flocks from other animals e.

Humans can also transmit diseases to a poultry flock A poultry veterinarian can assist with recommending appropriate vaccinations 19 to prevent infectious diseases as well as internal and external parasitism. A Flock Health Plan may include:. Veterinarians play a key role in helping producers attain flock health objectives. Biosecurity is the accepted term used to describe the measures needed to protect against the introduction and spread of diseases An effective biosecurity program is based on two main concepts: Consultation with a poultry veterinarian or a qualified advisor can assist with developing a biosecurity program to suit specific situations and needs Each poultry sector has developed comprehensive biosecurity standards, which include detailed sections on disease prevention that commercial producers are required to follow.

For non-commercial operations, refer to Appendix K - Resources for Further Information for references on developing a biosecurity program. Manuals can be obtained from provincial marketing boards.

It is important to be aware of general clinical signs of disease in birds. Early detection can limit the impact of a disease outbreak People, including on-farm personnel and visitors, may inadvertently carry infectious agents into the poultry operation.

A disease prevention or biosecurity protocol must be developed and followed. Effective sanitation measures will help to prevent disease transfer from one flock to the next Disinfectants are most effective when used on clean surfaces free of organic material such as straw and manure. If outdoor ranges are used, they also should be kept clean. It is beneficial to allow range areas to dry thoroughly prior to bird placement Buildings and equipment must be cleaned and a disinfectant applied following an outbreak of an infectious disease.

Rodents, wild birds, and insects can carry infectious disease into poultry operations. Damage caused by rodents takes many forms, including consumption and contamination of feed, as well as damage to buildings and insulation. Directly related to health, rodents are carriers of many diseases, which have an impact on biosecurity It is important to be able to recognize the signs of rodent infestation. Given the extreme difficulty of eliminating rodents, prevention should be the primary objective.

Management programs that eliminate entrances, nesting sites, and food and water supplies 23 can help to reduce rodent numbers. Fly control is important in poultry facilities due to possible spread of disease, mortality, and food safety concerns.

A plan to prevent and control pests including rodents, small animals, wild birds, insects, and predators must be developed and followed. Preventing flock health problems is always preferable to having to deal with established problems. There are strategies available to maintain flock health and prevent illnesses e.

Regular monitoring is essential for the early detection and correction of any flock health or management issues. Video surveillance in barns is a helpful tool for producers and can assist in observation and management of flocks with minimal disruption to the birds. In addition, personnel should check for early signs of disease.

Vital Records