Endocrine System

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What is the Endocrine System?
Diseases of the endocrine system are common, [8] including conditions such as diabetes mellitus , thyroid disease, and obesity. Other common diseases that result from endocrine dysfunction include Addison's disease , Cushing's disease and Graves's disease. PAN-kree-us is also part of the body's hormone-secreting system, even though it is also associated with the digestive system because it produces and secretes digestive enzymes. Some types of glands release their secretions in specific areas. One part of the pancreas, the exocrine pancreas, secretes digestive enzymes. These cells are called target cells.

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An Overview of the Hypothalamus

And you might gain weight. If it makes too much hyperthyroidism , everything speeds up. Your heart might race. You could have diarrhea. And you might lose weight without trying. This is a set of four small glands behind your thyroid. They are important for bone health. The glands control your levels of calcium and phosphorus.

This gland makes white blood cells called T-lymphocytes that fight infection and are crucial as a child's immune system develops. The thymus starts to shrink after puberty. Best known for making the "fight or flight" hormone adrenaline epinephrine , these two glands also make corticosteroids. These are hormones that affect your metabolism and sexual function, among other things. The pancreas is part of both your digestive and endocrine systems. It makes digestive enzymes that break down food.

It also makes the hormones insulin and glucagon. These help ensure you have the right amount of sugar in your bloodstream and your cells. If you don't make any insulin, which is the case for people with type 1 diabetes , your blood sugar levels can get dangerously high. Find Health Information Search entire library by keyword. Hormones and the Endocrine System. See related health topics and resources. Experience Our Care Find a Doctor for: Find a physician at another Johns Hopkins Member Hospital: Connect with a Treatment Center: Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism.

Find Additional Treatment Centers at: Maryland Patients Find a location near you. Contact Information View our phone directory or find a patient care location. Affects water retention in kidneys; controls blood pressure. Controls production of cortisol and other steroids made by the adrenal glands. Affects growth and development; stimulates protein production; affects fat distribution. Stimulates contraction of uterus and milk release in the female breast during breastfeeding. Initiates and maintains milk production in breasts; impacts sex hormone levels.

It occurs between adjacent cells that possess broad patches of closely opposed plasma membrane linked by transmembrane channels known as connexons. Diseases of the endocrine system are common, [8] including conditions such as diabetes mellitus , thyroid disease, and obesity.

Endocrine disease is characterized by irregulated hormone release a productive pituitary adenoma , inappropriate response to signaling hypothyroidism , lack of a gland diabetes mellitus type 1 , diminished erythropoiesis in chronic renal failure , or structural enlargement in a critical site such as the thyroid toxic multinodular goitre.

Hypofunction of endocrine glands can occur as a result of loss of reserve, hyposecretion, agenesis , atrophy, or active destruction. Hyperfunction can occur as a result of hypersecretion, loss of suppression, hyperplastic or neoplastic change, or hyperstimulation. Endocrinopathies are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary. Primary endocrine disease inhibits the action of downstream glands. Secondary endocrine disease is indicative of a problem with the pituitary gland.

Tertiary endocrine disease is associated with dysfunction of the hypothalamus and its releasing hormones. As the thyroid , and hormones have been implicated in signaling distant tissues to proliferate, for example, the estrogen receptor has been shown to be involved in certain breast cancers. Endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine signaling have all been implicated in proliferation, one of the required steps of oncogenesis.

Other common diseases that result from endocrine dysfunction include Addison's disease , Cushing's disease and Graves's disease. Cushing's disease and Addison's disease are pathologies involving the dysfunction of the adrenal gland. Dysfunction in the adrenal gland could be due to primary or secondary factors and can result in hypercortisolism or hypocortisolism. Cushing's disease is characterized by the hypersecretion of the adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH due to a pituitary adenoma that ultimately causes endogenous hypercortisolism by stimulating the adrenal glands.

Adrenal insufficiency is significant because it is correlated with decreased ability to maintain blood pressure and blood sugar, a defect that can prove to be fatal.

Graves' disease involves the hyperactivity of the thyroid gland which produces the T3 and T4 hormones. A neuroendocrine system has been observed in all animals with a nervous system and all vertebrates have an hypothalamus-pituitary axis.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Endocrine system Main glands of the endocrine system. Note that the thymus is no longer considered part of the endocrine system, as it does not produce hormones. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.

Development of the endocrine system. List of human endocrine organs and actions. Endocrine disease Endocrinology List of human endocrine organs and actions Neuroendocrinology Nervous system Paracrine signalling Releasing hormones Tropic hormone. From Cells to Systems. Lay summary — Project Muse. National Library of Medicine. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. The Journal of Endocrinology. Integrative and Comparative Biology.

The Endocrine System’s Link to the Nervous System