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Siege of Leningrad
In my view, if all web owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the web will be a lot more useful than ever before. But there are a lot of us! The scientists in New York are talking about a single event and not the ongoing reality. If your a person who is mentally strong I would go for it. Your weight will still fluctuate due to that. What is difficult, however, is to eat the required calories per day.

How “Clean Eating” Made Me Fat, But Ice Cream and Subway Got Me Lean

Are You An Under-Eater? 8 Signs You’re Not Eating Enough

At one point, the defending Front Commander, Popov , could not release reserves opposing the Finnish forces to be deployed against the Wehrmacht because they were needed to bolster the 23rd Army's defences on the Karelian Isthmus.

Popov felt relieved, and redeployed two divisions to the German sector on 5 September. Subsequently, the Finnish forces reduced the salients of Beloostrov and Kirjasalo , [50] which had threatened their positions at the sea coast and south of the River Vuoksi. These naval units operated against the supply route in the summer and autumn of , the only period the units were able to operate as freezing waters then forced the lightly equipped units to be moved away, and changes in front lines made it impractical to reestablish these units later in the war.

It included the 23rd Army in the northern sector between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and the 48th Army in the western sector between the Gulf of Finland and the Slutsk — Mga position. According to Zhukov, "Before the war Leningrad had a population of 3,, and 3,, counting the suburbs.

As many as 1,,, including , children were evacuated" between 29 June and 31 March They were moved to the Volga area, the Urals, Siberia and Kazakhstan.

By September , the link with the Volkhov Front commanded by Kirill Meretskov was severed and the defensive sectors were held by four armies: The 8th Army of the Volkhov Front had the responsibility of maintaining the logistic route to the city in coordination with the Ladoga Flotilla. The defensive operation to protect the 1,, civilian evacuees was part of the Leningrad counter-siege operations under the command of Andrei Zhdanov , Kliment Voroshilov , and Aleksei Kuznetsov.

Additional military operations were carried out in coordination with Baltic Fleet naval forces under the general command of Admiral Vladimir Tributs. The Ladoga Flotilla under the command of V. Khoroshikhin also played a major military role in helping with evacuation of the civilians. By Monday, 8 September, German forces had largely surrounded the city, cutting off all supply routes to Leningrad and its suburbs.

Unable to press home their offensive, and facing defences of the city organised by Marshal Zhukov , the Axis armies laid siege to the city for " days and nights". The air attack of Friday, 19 September was particularly brutal.

It was the heaviest air raid Leningrad would suffer during the war, as German bombers hit the city killing 1, civilians. Many of those killed were recuperating from battle wounds in hospitals that were hit by German bombs. Six air raids occurred that day. Five hospitals were damaged in the bombing, as well as the city's largest shopping bazaar. Hundreds of people had run from the street into the store to take shelter from the air raid.

Artillery bombardment of Leningrad began in August , increasing in intensity during with the arrival of new equipment. It was stepped up further during , when several times as many shells and bombs were used as in the year before.

Torpedoes were often used for night bombings by the Luftwaffe. To sustain the defence of the city, it was vitally important for the Red Army to establish a route for bringing a constant flow of supplies into Leningrad. This route was effected over the southern part of Lake Ladoga and the corridor of land which remained unoccupied by Axis forces between Lake Ladoga and Leningrad.

Transport across Lake Ladoga was achieved by means of watercraft during the warmer months and land vehicles driven over thick ice in winter hence the route becoming known as "The Ice Road". This was because no evacuation plan had been made available in the chaos of the first winter of the war, and the city was completely isolated until 20 November , when the ice road over Lake Ladoga became operational.

This road was named the Road of Life Russian: As a road it was very dangerous. There was the risk of vehicles becoming stuck in the snow or sinking through broken ice caused by the constant German bombardment. Because of the high winter death toll the route also became known as the "Road of Death". However, the lifeline did bring military and food supplies in and took civilians and wounded soldiers out, allowing the city to continue resisting their enemy. The two-and-a-half year siege caused the greatest destruction and the largest loss of life ever known in a modern city.

The days of the siege caused extreme famine in the Leningrad region through disruption of utilities, water, energy and food supplies. This resulted in the deaths of up to 1,, [59] soldiers and civilians and the evacuation of 1,, more mainly women and children , many of whom died during evacuation due to starvation and bombardment.

Economic destruction and human losses in Leningrad on both sides exceeded those of the Battle of Stalingrad , the Battle of Moscow , or the bombing of Tokyo. The siege of Leningrad ranks as the most lethal siege in world history , and some historians speak of the siege operations in terms of genocide , as a "racially motivated starvation policy" that became an integral part of the unprecedented German war of extermination against populations of the Soviet Union generally.

Civilians in the city suffered from extreme starvation , especially in the winter of — Deaths peaked in January—February at , per month, mostly from starvation. While reports of cannibalism appeared in the winter of —42, NKVD records on the subject were not published until Most evidence for cannibalism that surfaced before this time was anecdotal. Anna Reid points out that "for most people at the time, cannibalism was a matter of second-hand horror stories rather than direct personal experience".

NKVD files report the first use of human meat as food on 13 December The latter were usually shot while the former were sent to prison. The Soviet Criminal Code had no provision for cannibalism, so all convictions were carried out under Code Article 59—3, "special category banditry". Instances of person-eating were significantly lower than that of corpse-eating; of the people arrested in April for cannibalism, only 44 were murderers. More cases occurred in the outlying districts than in the city itself.

Cannibals were often unsupported women with dependent children and no previous convictions, which allowed for a certain level of clemency in legal proceedings. Given the scope of mass starvation, cannibalism was relatively rare. In the first six months of , Leningrad witnessed 1, such murders. At the same time, Leningrad was experiencing its highest mortality rate, as high as , people per month. Lisa Kirschenbaum notes "that incidents of cannibalism provided an opportunity for emphasizing that the majority of Leningraders managed to maintain their cultural norms in the most unimaginable circumstances.

On 9 August , the Symphony No. The concert was broadcast on loudspeakers placed throughout the city and also aimed towards the enemy lines. The same day had been previously designated by Hitler to celebrate the fall of the city with a lavish banquet at Leningrad's Astoria Hotel , [71] and was a few days before the Sinyavino Offensive. The Sinyavino Offensive was a Soviet attempt to break the blockade of the city in early autumn The 2nd Shock and the 8th armies were to link up with the forces of the Leningrad Front.

At the same time the German side was preparing an offensive to capture the city, Operation Nordlicht Northern Light , using the troops freed up after the capture of Sevastopol.

The offensive began on 27 August with some small-scale attacks by the Leningrad front, pre-empting " Nordlicht " by a few weeks. The successful start of the operation forced the Germans to redirect troops from the planned " Nordlicht " to counterattack the Soviet armies. After parts of the 2nd Shock Army were encircled and destroyed, the Soviet offensive was halted.

However, the German forces also had to abandon their offensive. The encirclement was broken in the wake of Operation Iskra Spark , a full-scale offensive conducted by the Leningrad and Volkhov Fronts.

This offensive started in the morning of 12 January The siege continued until 27 January , when the Soviet Leningrad-Novgorod Strategic Offensive expelled German forces from the southern outskirts of the city. This was a combined effort by the Leningrad and Volkhov Fronts, along with the 1st and 2nd Baltic Fronts. During the siege, 3, residential buildings, 9, wooden houses were burned, and factories and plants were destroyed in Leningrad and suburbs.

Almost all Finnish historians regard the siege as a German operation and do not consider that the Finns effectively participated in the siege.

Russian historian Nikolai Baryshnikov argues that active Finnish participation did occur, but other historians have been mostly silent about it, most likely due to the friendly nature of post-war Soviet—Finnish relations. The main issues which count in favour of the former view are: Baryshnikov explains that the Finnish military in the region was strategically dependent on the Germans, and lacked the required means and will to press the attack against Leningrad any further.

Deportations of Finns and Germans from the Leningrad area to inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union began in March using the Road of Life; many of their descendants still remain in those areas today.

Inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union hosted millions of the evacuees; many factories, universities, and theatres were also evacuated there. Even during the siege itself, war artifacts were collected and shown to the public by city authorities, such as the German airplane that was shot down and fell to the ground in Tauricheskiy Garden ru: Several years after World War II, in the late s — early s, Stalin's supposed jealousy of Leningrad city leaders caused their destruction in the course of politically-motivated show trials forming the post-WWII Leningrad Affair the pre-war purge followed the assassination of the popular city ruler Sergey Kirov.

Now another generation of state and Communist Party functionaries of the city was wiped out, supposedly for publicly overestimating the importance of the city as an independent fighting unit and their own roles in defeating the enemy. Their brainchild, the Leningrad Defence Museum, was also destroyed, and many valuable exhibits were destroyed. The museum was revived in the late s with the then wave of glasnost, when new shocking facts were published, showing both heroism of the wartime city and hardships and even cruelties of the period.

The exhibition opened in its originally allocated building, but has not yet regained its original size and area, most of its former premises having been given before its revival over to the military and other governmental offices. Plans for a new modern building of the museum have been suspended due to the financial crisis, but under the present Defence Secretary Sergey Shoigu promises have been made to expand the museum at its present location. Commemoration of the siege got a second wind during the s.

Local workers of art dedicated their achievements to the Victory and memory of the war they saw. A leading local poet and war participant Mikhail Dudin suggested erecting a ring of monuments on the places of heaviest siege-time fighting and linking them into a belt of gardens around the city showing where the advancing enemy armies were stopped forever. That was the beginning of the Green Belt of Glory ru: On 29 October , a monument entitled Broken Ring of the Siege, ru: Designed and created by Konstantin Simun , the monument pays tribute not only to the lives saved via the frozen Ladoga, but also the many lives broken by the blockade.

The Monument to the Heroic Defenders of Leningrad ru: The monument is a huge bronze ring with a gap in it, pointing towards the site that the Soviets eventually broke through the encircling German forces.

In the centre a Russian mother cradles her dying soldier son. The monument has an inscription saying " days nights". An exhibit underneath the monument contains artifacts from this period, such as journals. In later years, smaller-scale objects were added, such as memorial plaques to sources of water — a Siege-time Water-well and a river Ice-hole Rus. During the siege, numerous deaths of civilians and soldiers led to considerable expansion of burial places later memorialised, of which the best known is Piskaryovskoye Memorial Cemetery.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ritter von Leeb Georg von Küchler C. Leningrad and the Baltics — Effect of the Siege of Leningrad on the city. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

One of the most recent and powerful global policies to reduce hunger and poverty are the Sustainable Development Goals. In particular Goal 2: Zero hunger sets globally agreed targets to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. In April , the Food Assistance Convention was signed, the world's first legally binding international agreement on food aid. The May Copenhagen Consensus recommended that efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition should be the first priority for politicians and private sector philanthropists looking to maximize the effectiveness of aid spending.

They put this ahead of other priorities, like the fight against malaria and AIDS. The EndingHunger campaign is an online communication campaign aimed at raising awareness of the hunger problem. It has many worked through viral videos depicting celebrities voicing their anger about the large number of hungry people in the world.

Another initiative focused on improving the hunger situation by improving nutrition is the Scaling up Nutrition movement SUN. Started in this movement of people from governments, civil society, the United Nations, donors, businesses and researchers, publishes a yearly progress report on the changes in their 55 partner countries.

In response to child malnutrition, the Bangladeshi government recommends ten steps for treating severe malnutrition. They are to prevent or treat dehydration , low blood sugar , low body temperature , infection, correct electrolyte imbalances and micronutrient deficiencies, start feeding cautiously, achieve catch-up growth, provide psychological support, and prepare for discharge and follow-up after recovery.

Among those who are hospitalized, nutritional support improves protein, calorie intake and weight. The evidence for benefit of supplementary feeding is poor. Specially formulated foods do however appear useful in those from the developing world with moderate acute malnutrition.

In those who are severely malnourished, feeding too much too quickly can result in refeeding syndrome. Manufacturers are trying to fortify everyday foods with micronutrients that can be sold to consumers such as wheat flour for Beladi bread in Egypt or fish sauce in Vietnam and the iodization of salt.

For example, flour has been fortified with iron, zinc, folic acid and other B vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B Treating malnutrition, mostly through fortifying foods with micronutrients vitamins and minerals , improves lives at a lower cost and shorter time than other forms of aid , according to the World Bank.

In those with diarrhea, once an initial four-hour rehydration period is completed, zinc supplementation is recommended. Daily zinc increases the chances of reducing the severity and duration of the diarrhea, and continuing with daily zinc for ten to fourteen days makes diarrhea less likely recur in the next two to three months.

In addition, malnourished children need both potassium and magnesium. For a malnourished child with diarrhea from any cause, this should include foods rich in potassium such as bananas, green coconut water, and unsweetened fresh fruit juice. The World Health Organization WHO recommends rehydrating a severely undernourished child who has diarrhea relatively slowly.

The preferred method is with fluids by mouth using a drink called oral rehydration solution ORS. The oral rehydration solution is both slightly sweet and slightly salty and the one recommended in those with severe undernutrition should have half the usual sodium and greater potassium. Fluids by nasogastric tube may be use in those who do not drink. Intravenous fluids are recommended only in those who have significant dehydration due to their potential complications.

These complications include congestive heart failure. This switch from type of fluid to amount of fluid was crucial in order to prevent dehydration from diarrhea. Breast feeding and eating should resume as soon as possible. To prevent dehydration readily available fluids, preferably with a modest amount of sugars and salt such as vegetable broth or salted rice water, may be used. The drinking of additional clean water is also recommended.

Once dehydration develops oral rehydration solutions are preferred. As much of these drinks as the person wants can be given, unless there are signs of swelling. If vomiting occurs, fluids can be paused for 5—10 minutes and then restarting more slowly.

Vomiting rarely prevents rehydration as fluid are still absorbed and the vomiting rarely last long. For babies a dropper or syringe without the needle can be used to put small amounts of fluid into the mouth; for children under 2, a teaspoon every one to two minutes; and for older children and adults, frequent sips directly from a cup. After the first two hours of rehydration it is recommended that to alternate between rehydration and food. Malnourished children have an excess of body sodium.

Hypoglycemia , whether known or suspected, can be treated with a mixture of sugar and water. If the child is conscious, the initial dose of sugar and water can be given by mouth. If seizures occur after despite glucose, rectal diazepam is recommended. Blood sugar levels should be re-checked on two hour intervals. To prevent or treat this, the child can be kept warm with covering including of the head or by direct skin-to-skin contact with the mother or father and then covering both parent and child.

Prolonged bathing or prolonged medical exams should be avoided. Warming methods are usually most important at night. The figures provided in this section on epidemiology all refer to undernutrition even if the term malnutrition is used which, by definition, could also apply to too much nutrition. There were million undernourished people in the world in Malnutrition, as of , was the cause of 1.

Mortality due to malnutrition accounted for 58 percent of the total mortality in In protein-energy malnutrition resulted in , deaths down from , deaths in According to the World Health Organization, malnutrition is the biggest contributor to child mortality , present in half of all cases. Poor or non-existent breastfeeding causes another 1. Other deficiencies, such as lack of vitamin A or zinc , for example, account for 1 million.

Malnutrition in the first two years is irreversible. Malnourished children grow up with worse health and lower education achievement. Their own children tend to be smaller. Malnutrition was previously [ when? This helps their communities have more balanced diets and become more resilient to pests and drought. Finger millet is very high in calcium, rich in iron and fiber, and has a better energy content than other cereals. These characteristics make it ideal for feeding to infants and the elderly.

Some organizations have begun working with teachers, policymakers, and managed food service contractors to mandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeterias from primary to university-level institutions. Health and nutrition have been proven to have close links with overall educational success.

Undernutrition is an important determinant of maternal and child health, accounting for more than a third of child deaths and more than 10 percent of the total global disease burden according to studies.

The World Health Organization estimates that malnutrition accounts for 54 percent of child mortality worldwide, [31] about 1 million children. As underweight children are more vulnerable to almost all infectious diseases, the indirect disease burden of malnutrition is estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than the disease burden of the direct effects of malnutrition.

Researchers from the Centre for World Food Studies in found that the gap between levels of undernutrition in men and women is generally small, but that the gap varies from region to region and from country to country.

Intra-country variation also occurs, with frequent high gaps between regional undernutrition rates. Studies on nutrition concerning gender bias within households look at patterns of food allocation, and one study from suggested that women often receive a lower share of food requirements than men.

Within the household, there may be differences in levels of malnutrition between men and women, and these differences have been shown to vary significantly from one region to another, with problem areas showing relative deprivation of women. Women in some societies are traditionally given less food than men since men are perceived to have heavier workloads.

Women have unique nutritional requirements, and in some cases need more nutrients than men; for example, women need twice as much calcium as men. During pregnancy and breastfeeding, women must ingest enough nutrients for themselves and their child, so they need significantly more protein and calories during these periods, as well as more vitamins and minerals especially iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid, and vitamins A, C, and K.

Frequent pregnancies with short intervals between them and long periods of breastfeeding add an additional nutritional burden. According to the FAO, women are often responsible for preparing food and have the chance to educate their children about beneficial food and health habits, giving mothers another chance to improve the nutrition of their children. Malnutrition and being underweight are more common in the elderly than in adults of other ages. Rates of malnutrition tend to increase with age with less than 10 percent of the "young" elderly up to age 75 malnourished, while 30 to 65 percent of the elderly in home care, long-term care facilities, or acute hospitals are malnourished.

In Australia malnutrition or risk of malnutrition occurs in 80 percent of elderly people presented to hospitals for admission. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Medical condition that results from eating too little, too much, or the wrong nutrients. For the concept in metalworking, see Underfeeder. Stunted growth and Wasting. List of types of malnutrition.

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A manual for physicians and other senior health workers , WHO, Specifically, 45 milliliters of potassium chloride solution from a stock solution containing g KCl per liter, along with one packet of ORS, two liters of water, and 50 grams of sucrose.

And please remember, sucrose has approximately twice the molecular weight of glucose, with one mole of glucose weighing g and one mole of sucrose weighing g. Half a teaspoon of salt 2. This can also be achieved by added 1 rounded teaspoon of sugar to Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Jean Ziegler". Retrieved December 27, High food prices and food security — threats and opportunities". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations , , p.

Eating Once Per Day – Basic Understanding