II. State Education Department
In a patient receiving both EN and PN, careful transition feeding is necessary to avoid overfeeding as EN tolerance improves and the need for PN is decreased. A Commissioner's regulation requiring "participation of parents and teachers in school-based planning and shared decisionmaking" embodied a key principle of the Compact, and was implemented in Evidence for a negative impact from malnutrition on clinical outcome in the hospitalized patient dates back over eight decades After the Department's Resource Allocation Plan coordinated the delivery of federal, state, and local resources to selected school buildings where pupils performed poorly in the new Regents competency tests. Minimal federal aid came with this big mandate. Caffeine is found not only in coffee. Advertising The nerds have the numbers on precious metals investments on the ASX.
B. Nutritional assessment
This research unit designed some important new programs, such as the BOCES in the late s, and the regional library systems in the '50s. Until it was discontinued in the mids, the division also conducted general research on pupil performance and school administration. The commission found some of the same serious operational inefficiencies identified by the Regents' Inquiry for example, in the examinations division, the State Library's cataloging unit, and the Regents' then-numerous committees.
These problems were eventually corrected, but the Department did not reduce the number of its major program areas from eleven to four, as the Wicks Commission urged. During the s the Department's administration focused its attention on the challenges of growth -- building schools and recruiting and paying teachers in an era of rapidly-rising enrollments. The s brought new organizational problems as a result of the Department's rapid expansion.
A steady increase in federal aid, particularly under the National Defense Education Act of , the Manpower Training Act of , and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of , brought a near doubling of the Department's staff 1, in , 3, in A ten-story annex to the Education Building was completed in These facilities brought together Department staff formerly scattered in several locations around downtown Albany.
After a major reorganization in , four new assistant commissioners reported to the associate commissioner for elementary, secondary, and continuing education. New associate commissioners were appointed for cultural education , research and special studies , and finance and management services Deputy commissioners began to be added to the administrative hierarchy in the late s, eventually replacing the associate commissioners. The first sign of fiscal stringency appeared in , when the Governor's budget proposal recommended a five per cent cut for all agencies.
The state's fiscal crisis burgeoned in the mids; between and the Department's work force dropped by over one thousand positions, about 30 per cent. Since the early s the Department has had around three thousand employees. The smaller Department has a simpler organizational structure, resembling that of the s. With the growth in state appropriations slowing, more and more Department staff have been shifted to federal funding, which itself was jeopardized by the mids. During the period several significant Department programs -- professional licensure and discipline, teacher certification, proprietary school supervision, tuition and maintenance for handicapped children in the Rome and Batavia state schools and state-supported private schools, records management services, and certain State Museum activities -- began to be funded from special revenue accounts.
The Department's administrative and support functions such as personnel, payroll, accounting, auditing, public relations, printing, building and grounds were originally located in a division of accounts. It was renamed the division of administration in , relieved of its fiscal responsibilities in , and headed by an assistant commissioner after A separate public relations office was set up in Most Department employees were and are civil servants, tested and appointed under rules of the Civil Service Commission established The Education Department, like other agencies, was responsible for setting its own rules on employee conduct, attendance, and leave.
The rules varied from agency to agency, causing much confusion. The Legislature passed appropriation bills for salaries and other expenses. The state had no budgeting process until , when the governor first presented an annual budget proposal to the Legislature. Department officials complained that salaries for many of its job titles were set lower than for the same titles in other agencies, or for jobs in urban schools and libraries.
This situation was improved in , when the Legislature enacted a revised, standardized title, grade, and salary structure for all state agencies.
The Depression years of the s brought pay cuts for employees in higher salary grades, but no layoffs. The war years of the early s saw many Department employees leave for military service. The later s and '50s were an era of slow but steady growth in most areas of the Department. During the mids the Department of Civil Service delegated to the Department's Office of Business Management and Personnel, as it did to other agencies, new responsibilities for recruiting employees and developing examinations.
During the s it was difficult to fill all of the Department's many new professional positions; in some fiscal years the Department did not expend all of its personal service funds much of which now came from federal aid. In the Public Employees' Fair Employment Act Taylor Law authorized public employees to organize unions to negotiate the terms and conditions of employment. The Civil Service Employees Association was formed to represent state workers.
In the Public Employees Federation became the collective bargaining agent for professional, scientific, and technical employees formerly represented by CSEA.
Starting in a division later bureau of statistics manually collected and tabulated data on school district enrollments and finances, and used the data to calculate state aid.
A bureau of apportionment processed claims for state aid including, after , transportation and building aid and certified them to the Comptroller for payment from monies appropriated by the Legislature. The later s brought massive increases in state aid to school districts, and a complex new system of equalizing and allocating that aid. The Department's fiscal and state aid operations were accordingly reorganized. A division of finance, including the accounting and auditing functions, had been set up in As a result of an outside audit done in , a reorganized finance division was headed by a new assistant commissioner and included the bureaus of apportionment and statistics.
The Division was also made responsible for preparing Department budget requests. The fiscal units remained stable for decades the Wicks Commission report of found the apportionment bureau to be "efficient and well- administered".
The increasing complexity of education finance during and after the s required major changes in state aid, budgeting, accounting, and auditing. Separate state and federal aid units were set up in , with the influx of federal aid under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. In the Department instituted a new accounting system promoted by the governor and developed by an inter-agency group for budgeting, appropriating, and accounting of funds on the basis of programs as well as objects of expenditures.
Heads of major program areas became responsible for managing their expenditures. A budget coordination unit was established in A cost-accounting system was developed by the end of the decade in order to charge federal funds for overhead services.
After a centralized administrative audit unit for external programs was set up, including the audit function from the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation. In the late s an internal audit section was created. The Department has adopted management planning only in recent years. In Commissioner James E. A consultant analyzed customer and staff views, and the assistant commissioners compiled briefing books on their programs. No plan appeared, probably because of the New York City school decentralization crisis.
During the s the Department was required to report quarterly to the Budget Division key statistical indicators of agency activities what use was made of the data is unclear. Major program planning started in in the Office of Cultural Education, using various processes and formats. VESID adopted an overall operational plan in ; significant planning and operational improvements have occurred in some other areas. Following a critical review by the Rockefeller Institute in , newly-selected Commissioner Richard P.
Mills committed the Department to developing an overall strategic plan to clarify the agency's mission and improve services to its many customers. Automated office equipment -- first mechanical, later electronic -- has transformed the Department's work, both in support and program functions.
A central stenographic and typing pool using mechanical equipment functioned from to about The Department's first central mail room, complete with postage meter, was opened in Dial telephones were installed in That same year the Department acquired IBM punch card and tabulating machines to produce school district statistical reports.
Several other functions were automated during the s and '50s. A division of electronic data processing was established in , and two years later the Department acquired a General Electric mainframe computer with 8 kilobytes of system memory the present Unisys A16 has megabytes. By electronic data processing was in use in the areas of state aid, school statistics, vocational rehabilitation, professional licensing, Regents scholarship exams, and the State Library.
Personal computers arrived in the early s. The State Education Department Network SEDNET now includes mainframe, mini- and micro-computers, file servers, terminals, and other devices connected by routers on a "backbone" of fiber-optic cable.
By the Department offered several "homepage" access points on the Internet. Paper forms and files remain voluminous. The Department has had its own printing facilities since The plant in the basement of the Education Building received modern offset equipment in the mids. Today the central printing plant in the Cultural Education Center produces Regents and other examinations and Department forms and publications, altogether several million items each year.
Publications services and forms design are provided by Department staff. Patriotic and Moral Education. Quite noncontroversial are the laws requiring schools to display the American flag , hold patriotic exercises , and use a pledge of allegiance to the flag Other laws were or became very controversial.
A statute required the dismissal of a public school employee committing treason or sedition. Another law passed during World War I directed the Commissioner to ban textbooks containing matter "disloyal" to the United States.
A law briefly in force during the post-war "Red Scare" required that teacher certificates be issued only to those who could show they were "loyal and obedient" to the state and federal governments the Regents unanimously opposed this legislation. A more lasting legacy of the Red Scare was state censorship of motion pictures, which began in The Regents were given this responsibility in The Department's motion picture division licensed all commercial films shown in the state and edited or rejected films found to be "indecent, inhuman, tending to incite to crime, immoral or tending to corrupt morals, or sacrilegious.
Supreme Court declared New York's film censorship violated the constitutional guarantee of free speech and expression. The s, '40s, and early '50s, an era of competing political ideologies worldwide, brought recurring efforts to safeguard public education from perceived political threats from the left or right. After school teachers and administrators were required to take a loyalty oath. A law mandated the dismissal of any educator in a public school or college who advocated the violent overthrow of lawful government.
This act was aimed at the New York City school system, where a communist faction had taken control of the small teachers' union in The Feinberg Law of declared that "subversives" had "infiltrated" the public schools; it required the Regents to list subversive organizations and adopt rules to enforce the and acts. The Regents established a procedure for reporting disloyal school employees and provided a modicum of due process for the accused persons.
The Feinberg Law was upheld by the U. Supreme Court in Over the next few years several hundred New York City teachers resigned or were dismissed, after they refused to implicate persons involved in organizations deemed subversive.
In Commissioner Allen issued an order in an appeal case, in effect permitting former but not current members of subversive organizations to hold professional jobs in the public schools.
During the s New York's teacher loyalty acts of and were declared unconstitutional by the U. The "Blaine Amendment" to the state Constitution forbids use of public monies to support religious schools, except for the expenses of state "visitation and inspection. That same year the Board of Regents split its vote on the issue of "released time" for public school children to attend religious instruction and observance.
During the s the Regents countenanced the practice, and even approved a brief "non- denominational" prayer to be used in schools. See footnote 2 The Constitutional Convention of proposed the repeal of the Blaine amendment, a proposal endorsed by the Board of Regents. Largely because of this provision, the proposed Constitution was rejected by the voters. In the Legislature authorized spending public monies for non-public mostly religious schools, for testing, reporting, pupil services, building maintenance, and some tuition costs for poor children.
These provisions were declared to violate the constitutional separation of church and state, but the courts upheld a more limited act which authorized reimbursement of the actual cost of tests and reports required by the state. The Free Common School System. Almost yearly after , the Regents and the Governor urged the Legislature to establish and endow a system of common schools. The response was a law which authorized spending 20, pounds annually for five years to support schools; the state aid was augmented by a local tax.
About existing neighborhood schools received money from the state. The Legislature ended the program in and designated the proceeds of a statewide lottery to assist the common schools.
Lotteries were made illegal in and were made legal in ; again the proceeds were designated for support of education! In the Legislature set up a fund for the support of the common schools, allocating to the fund the proceeds from state land sales and other assets. In a landmark law established a statewide system of common school districts and authorized distribution of interest from the Common School Fund.
See footnote 3 Town and city officials were directed to lay out the districts; the voters in each district elected trustees to operate the school. State aid was distributed to those districts holding school at least three months a year, according to population aged While the act authorized local authorities to establish common school districts, an amendment required them to do so. After , if the cost of instruction exceeded the total of state aid plus local tax, as it generally did, the difference was made up by charging tuition, or "rates," itemized on "rate bills.
The typical district had a one- or two-room schoolhouse where children learned reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, and geography. The common school act shaped the future of public education in New York by establishing that 1 common schools are a state function under state control; 2 funding of public schools is a joint state-local responsibility; 3 the school district -- not the county or the town -- is the primary administrative unit for public education.
Rate bills kept many poor children out of school, and for years concerned teachers and parents lobbied for free common schools.
An statute provided for a combination of state and local funding for tuition-free common schools, if the voters approved; and voters endorsed the free school law in two successive statewide referenda. The Court of Appeals then declared the extraordinary referenda to be illegal.
In the Legislature repealed the free school law, but instituted a statewide property tax for schools to augment revenues from rate bills, the Common School Fund, and local property tax levies. The law had given school districts the power to levy property taxes for instructional expenses, not just for school construction; this authority was continued.
Superintendent of Public Instruction Victor M. Rice now led the battle for free schools, and victory was finally achieved in The guarantee of a free primary and secondary education was embodied in the state Constitution in Origins of the High Schools. Beyond the "3 R's" readin', 'ritin', 'rithmetic offered by the common schools, more advanced instruction was available in private high schools known as "academies" or "seminaries.
After aid was designated for students in all academic courses, not just Latin and Greek, thereby encouraging academies to broaden their programs beyond that of the classical grammar school. By the s about academies around the state provided secondary education very few youths went on to college. However, the modern high school developed not from the academies, but from free public high schools in consolidated school districts.
By the s the small common school districts were obviously inadequate for growing urban areas. Ward or district schools within cities were unified by special statutes into city-wide districts. See footnote 4 Several of the larger villages were empowered to set up "union" school districts. In a general law authorized one or more common districts to form a union free school district.
This law and the special laws for city school systems permitted the new districts to establish "academic departments," or high schools, which were to be overseen by both the Regents and the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Boards of education managed the property and finances of the city and union free districts, and hired superintendents to administer systems with several schools. Budgets were approved by the municipal board in a city or village; elsewhere, by the district voters.
The Legislature abolished rate bills in union free districts in The private academies could not compete with free high schools, and most soon merged with the union districts or simply closed down. The Regents at first doubted the need for public high schools, but later they promoted them by providing aid from the Literature Fund.
In they hired full-time inspectors to visit and inspect high schools throughout the state. During that decade the Secretary to the Regents, Melvil Dewey, coordinated a successful drive to organize more high schools in rural areas, with the inducement of additional state aid.
Most of the union free districts later became the nuclei of central school districts. High school enrollments would expand greatly during the s and '30s, leading the Department to promote the comprehensive high school. School Aid Quota System. Between and state aid to schools came from two dedicated revenue sources, the Common School Fund for common schools and the Literature Fund for academies. The funds' return did not keep pace with the needs of the schools, and between and a modest statewide real property tax provided additional revenue for school aid.
After almost all state aid to school districts came from the state's general fund, until the lottery fund was set up in Starting in the s more and more state aid was allocated by an increasingly complex system of "quotas," fixed amounts of money regardless of district size or wealth.
There were quotas for teachers , city superintendents , high schools , , village superintendents , non-resident high school pupils , vocational teachers , agriculture teachers , etc. By there were forty different quotas, including those for the new central school districts.
After quotas were figured, the rest of a district's aid was calculated according to its school-age population and average daily attendance the sole factor after The general expansion of city and village school facilities and programs in the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was financed mainly by local taxes.
Between and total state aid increased about 50 per cent, while local school taxes increased by per cent, in an era of gradual currency deflation and rapid growth in urban population and wealth. The increasing power and prestige of the state's public education system was achieved not by increasing state aid, but by raising and enforcing educational standards, most notably through the famed Regents examinations. Fiscal Crisis of the s; Rural School Centralization.
One large segment of the public school system was in deep trouble. Most of the rural schools had declining enrollments and tax bases. For decades state school officials had called for consolidation of small country districts. In the Legislature abolished all the thousands of common school districts and formed them into "township units. However, wartime inflation and the post-war agricultural depression caused a crisis in school finance.
The quota system of state aid could not respond to rapid inflation and deflation, and it did little to help poor districts. The rich city districts were constrained by the constitutional limit on municipal indebtedness.
During the s several major studies of public school facilities, programs, performance, and finance were carried out by the Joint Committee on Rural Schools, the Friedsam Commission, and other groups. These studies concluded that state aid must be increased, and must be equalized to relieve poor districts and provide equal educational opportunity.
The Governor and the Legislature resolved the crisis. During the s state aid to public schools increased dramatically, from under 10 per cent to about 27 per cent of total costs.
In the s it is about 38 per cent. The old quota system was mostly abandoned in As recommended by the Friedsam Commission, legislation in the later s provided even more state aid for both urban and rural districts. While the new aid formula still favored rich districts willing to pay for better schools, it governed the allocation of state aid until , when a revised formula took effect.
After secondary school aid was given for pupils in grades , encouraging the organization of junior high schools promoted by the Department since the s and registered starting The Cole-Rice Law also provided financial incentives for the formation of "central rural school districts," first authorized by a statute. The generous 50 per cent transportation aid and 25 per cent building aid prompted a steady growth in the number of centralizations, especially during the economic depression of the s.
The Department's bureau of rural education worked with the District Superintendents to promote centralization of rural schools. The Regents' Inquiry into the Character and Cost of Public Education criticized the Department's piecemeal approach and the small size of many central schools.
In response, centralization procedures were improved, and a Temporary State Commission on the State Education System Rapp-Coudert Commission, developed a "master plan" for school consolidation , updated Statutes passed in the s permitted consolidation of common school districts with smaller city districts, and by the s centralization was essentially complete. A number of union free districts in suburban areas continue to operate schools.
During the s educators envisioned a comprehensive high school that would educate all children for work and life in a democracy. However, most central schools were not big enough to offer a full array of academic and vocational courses.
In a Council on Rural Education, funded by farm organizations, recommended a "new type of rural supervisory district," responsible to school districts and responsive to needs of rural people. The result was the intermediate district law of No such districts were ever formed. The act provided for temporary boards of cooperative educational services now called BOCES , which the Department hoped would "get people working together across district lines" and provide shared educational services in rural areas.
Nearly half a century later, the thirty-eight BOCES are major educational enterprises in their own right. After BOCES were authorized to own and operate their own facilities, and BOCES now offer vocational and special education programs as well as many administrative services for member districts. The New York City public school system began to take shape under private control. In a group of Quakers and civic leaders organized and endowed the Free School Society to educate children not served by private academies or charity schools.
After the renamed Public School Society received all the city's state school aid. It built up a system of "monitorial" schools which employed the regimented methods of instruction devised by Joseph Lancaster in England. Catholics protested the Society's Protestant leanings, and in the Legislature established a parallel system of publicly- operated schools for New York City, to be governed by ward trustees and overseen by a city board of education.
The city system absorbed the Public School Society facilities in A large Catholic school system developed in the later nineteenth century. By the s about ten per cent of the state's school-age population attended private academies, most of them urban Catholic schools. After consolidation of the City of Greater New York , the city rapidly established a public high school system throughout the five boroughs.
For a few years each borough had its own appointive school board, and there was also a city-wide board of education. The revised city charter of established a single school board appointed by the mayor. The powers of the New York City superintendent of schools were considerably increased by the general city school law passed in However, the Board of Estimate and the City Council retained many fiscal controls over the schools.
About thirty assistant or field superintendents oversaw operations of the city schools, and there were advisory local school boards. Studies of the New York City school system by the State Education Department and the Rapp-Coudert Commission found massive administrative inefficiencies, and no great improvement occurred in following decades.
After the New York City school decentralization crisis of , the Legislature established some new players: Since New York City school board members have been appointed by the Mayor and the borough presidents. The city school law repealed hundreds of obsolete statutes relating to city school districts and established a uniform system of school administration in city districts statewide.
As permitted by a constitutional amendment, statutes passed in and gave smaller city school districts under thousand population fiscal and political autonomy from municipal government. The smaller city districts became fiscally "independent," having their own taxing power, like the central and union free districts. However, the five largest cities over thousand population, i. New York, Yonkers, Syracuse, Rochester, Buffalo continue to be "dependent" school districts; their budgets are part of the regular city budgets, and city and school taxes are levied together.
School budgets in city districts have been adopted without voter approval, though public budget hearings are held. Legislation passed in authorizes smaller city districts to hold votes on school budgets. State Aid Since the s. The national movement for school finance reform has touched, but not yet transformed, the state school aid system in New York.
As recommended by the Diefendorf Commission, a new state aid formula was enacted in , providing relatively more aid for less wealthy school districts, with a roughly even split between state and local financing for schools statewide.
Aid was to be given in four main expenditure categories: The equalizing effect of the Diefendorf formula was diminished by new special aids for disadvantaged and disabled students, and by minimum aid levels for all districts, including "save-harmless" provisions guaranteeing stable aid in case of declining enrollments or increasing property values.
The Fleischmann Commission of criticized New York's inequitable school finance system and called for a complete state takeover of financing of public schools, to be supported by a statewide real property tax. A revised, interim state aid formula was enacted in ; it added a second tier of compensatory aid for under- performing and handicapped students. In the Supreme Court declared, in the Levittown v. Nyquist case, that New York's entire school finance system was unconstitutional because it did not afford pupils equal protection under the law.
The Court of Appeals reversed this decision in , deferring to the Legislature's responsibility to finance public education. The highly complex state aid system has continued basically the same since, despite several studies and numerous technical changes. General aid to school districts is calculated using "resident weighted average daily attendance" RWADA , an equalizing aid ratio, and a district growth index.
There is also state aid for pupil transportation and for capital construction and debt service; generous incentive aid for school district consolidation; excess cost aid for pupils with handicapping conditions , ; supplemental school aid to districts having low personal income ; aid for pupils with compensatory needs or limited English proficiency ; and various other aids for specific programs.
Separate teams administer general state aid and categorical aid to schools. Automation has transformed the complex tasks of maintaining school statistics and calculating aid.
The Basic Educational Data System BEDS , developed during the mids, produces fiscal, enrollment, program, and personnel reports for both public and private elementary and secondary schools. The System to Account for Children STAC , developed in , is used to allocate special aid to school districts, state agencies, and counties for educating children who are disabled, in an institution, or homeless. Since the Regents have been required by law to submit to the Legislature an annual statistical report on the condition of the state's education system -- including a statewide profile and statistics on individual school districts, using data from BEDS and other sources.
At the urging of farm groups, the office of School Commissioner was replaced in with the District Superintendent of Schools, appointed locally but paid by and responsible to the Commissioner of Education. Before the District Superintendents served five-year, renewable terms; since then their terms have been indefinite.
There were originally District Superintendencies statewide; today there are The duty of the District Superintendents, as Commissioner Draper wrote in , was not "visitation" of the rural schools but rather "intelligent supervision. The Department continues to supervise occasional consolidations and also, since , annexations of smaller central school districts; the Commissioner issues the order laying out the new district, prior to the final vote.
School districts in cities and the larger villages have had their own superintendents since the mid-nineteenth century and were never under the jurisdiction of the School Commissioners or District Superintendents. See footnote 5 Schools under city and village superintendents had considerable autonomy. In the Board of Regents made Regents exams optional in those schools, providing that they used tests of the College Entrance Examination Board or local exams approved by the Department.
In later years many urban high schools prided themselves on giving exams that were more challenging than the Regents exams. City school superintendents, principals, and teachers were active in the Department's curriculum planning. However, Department inspectors spent almost all their time in the field visiting the smaller high schools or, by the s, speaking at conferences of administrators and teachers. The Department's "hands-off" policy toward the city schools would change dramatically during the s.
The Department's school "inspectors" were retitled "supervisors" in , and by the s consultative services to schools were being emphasized.
Starting in the finance division provided advice on accounting, auditing, and budgeting to newly-organized central rural school districts. By the end of the decade this service was offered to all districts, and new uniform accounting forms were adopted. The Department continues to provide various business services including management studies to school districts and the BOCES. The Department also reviews and approves plans for school construction so that they meet all local, state, and federal code requirements.
The School Commissioners began approving school building projects in union free districts in This responsibility was given to the Commissioner in The function was first carried out in the Department's old inspections division, in a separate division after School construction reached new peaks during the mid- and later s, because of district centralization and federal Depression aid, and again during the s and early '60s, because of the post-war "baby boom.
The Department's school facilities unit also has general responsibility for the health, safety, and accessibility of schools statewide. Transporting rural children to school became possible with the coming of automobiles, paved roads, and snow plows. Transportation of students in union free and central districts was required by a statute. A much disliked, often challenged law mandated common districts to pay half the cost of transporting their high school pupils.
After District Superintendents approved the terms of transportation contracts, and the Department checked and filed them. Since the Department has formally approved bids for transportation contracts, reviewed school bus routes, and established standards for drivers and vehicles.
Today, in all but the largest cities, school districts provide or contract for transportation of pupils if they live at a distance from their school. Since the s the state, not the federal government, has been legally responsible for education of Indians in New York. State support began in , when the Legislature appropriated money to help build reservation schools. After these schools got regular state aid.
Since adjoining central school districts have taught reservation students on contract with the Department. See footnote 6 In the late s the Department began encouraging rather than discouraging the teaching of aboriginal languages and culture. A Native American education unit was set up in Attendance figures were used to calculate all or part of Regents' aid to private academies starting in The advent of free public education in the s provided the opportunity to promote, or to compel, regular attendance in the public schools.
Decades passed before success was achieved. Average daily attendance was used to compute part of general school aid starting , in the hope of encouraging attendance. An law required most children to attend school at least 70 days a year, but there was little means of enforcing this law.
Growing public concern about child labor in factories and sweatshops helped persuade the Legislature to pass a strong compulsory attendance law in The law required children aged 8- 12 to attend the full school year of days; employed children aged had to attend at least 80 days. The school year was increased to days in , days in , and has not changed since. The official school- leaving age was increased to 15 in , 16 in , and the end of the school year in which a person turns 16, in The attendance law required city and village districts to appoint truant officers, who could and did arrest truant pupils over 25, arrests in To assist the truant officers, a biennial school census in the larger cities and villages was mandated in ; an annual census was required in all other districts with more than eight teachers starting in The Department's compulsory attendance division received monthly attendance data from every district except cities and could withhold state aid from districts with poor records.
By the s the Department stopped trying to coerce regular attendance. It now emphasized the child's right to an education and urged schools to cooperate with social workers and the courts.
The old attendance and child accounting division was dismantled in , and attendance and census functions were grouped with other school administrative services. Since the s the Department has promoted early childhood education. A five-year project funded by the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Foundation reported in that "the time has come for the integration of the primary school, kindergarten and nursery school into one comprehensive program for young children.
The emergency Federal aid for these programs was not continued. Kindergartens dated from the s and were common in city school systems by the s, but state aid for them was not authorized until The vision of widened services to young children persisted. In new legislative funding permitted some districts to begin pre-kindergarten programs for children from poor households. This state-funded program separate from federally-supported day child care continues successfully to the present.
Regents Examinations and Curricula. From the beginning the Regents tried to maintain high standards in secondary schools. Grants from the Literature Fund were intended to support academic instruction.
In and again in the Regents specified the texts or subjects that academies must teach to qualify for aid. Aid was restricted to those students who had passed local entrance examinations in the "common branch" subjects of reading, writing, grammar, arithmetic, and geography.
Unfortunately, many academies lowered their standards in order to attract students and get state aid. Free high schools in the large cities experimented with uniform examinations. In the Regents, encouraged by Chancellor John V.
Pruyn, decided to require public examinations of all students who sought admission to academies and high schools. A year later the Regents distributed the first "preliminary" examinations. Colleges were calling for higher standards in secondary schools, and an statute authorized the Regents to give "academic" examinations as a standard for high school graduation and college admission.
The Regents exams were quickly adopted because they embodied high scholastic standards, and because academies and high schools had to use them to qualify for aid from the Literature Fund. Strict security measures -- including the famous sealed envelopes and locked boxes -- were in place by At their high point, in , Regents high school exams were given in 68 different subjects.
For many decades all higher-level Regents exams were rated, and diplomas issued, in Albany. The Regents exams were and are unique in the nation. The Department was proud of studies done in the s and '30s which indicated that high scores on the exams were good predictors of success in college. However, steps were taken to reduce the complexity and expense of the exam system. After Regents exams were not offered in first- and second-year language courses. In one third of the high school exams were discontinued.
The Department even proposed eliminating the preliminary exams, given in the seventh and eighth grades. Many school administrators objected to the proposal, and the preliminary exams continued to be offered until The Regents in approved the proposal of the State Examinations Board and the Department for comprehensive Regents examinations.
The first of these were given in foreign languages, followed by English Consolidation of Regents exams approached its practical limit by the end of the s. The Board of Regents in accepted, with some dissents, the Commissioner's recommendation to continue the Regents high school exams and the Regents diploma, pending the development of alternative student assessment programs.
In the Regents designated the exams as the general testing standard for high school graduation, and the less demanding high school competency exams given since were scheduled to be discontinued. The Regents exams were accompanied by curricula, outlined in published syllabi and teacher's guides. The first Regents high school syllabus was issued in After a decade of experimentation, the program of Regents exams, certificates, and diplomas was stabilized in Semi-official course outlines for elementary schools were first prepared by School Commissioners during the s; the Department of Public Instruction issued an official version in Revised, expanded syllabi for elementary and secondary education followed every few years, with a trend toward integrated course sequences in particular subject areas.
After separate syllabi were issued for each subject. The early curricula emphasized learning and reciting of facts, lots of them, with the aim of instilling "mental discipline" if nothing else. A significant acknowledgement of the value of learning from experience was the institution in of formal laboratory work in high school science courses. Recommended curricula and teaching methods changed dramatically after the s, as part of the nationwide movement to fit education to the child's social and intellectual development.
The new approach was proposed by the assistant commissioner for elementary education and the association of school superintendents in , and outlined in the Department's "Cardinal Objectives of Elementary Education," issued in The unit-organized, activity-centered teaching methods recommended by the "Cardinal Objectives" were widely adopted by schools during the s.
A new manual for rural school teachers was the Department's first major guide to what was termed "progressive education. The "social studies" -- an amalgam of history, geography, civics, and economics -- were given a central place in a new secondary school curriculum approved by the Regents in Unified syllabi for the social studies were completed by the mids.
An outline for secondary school social studies praised the "democratic way of life" and aimed to prepare young people for harmonious participation in the society and economy in which they found themselves. After World War II the Department's curriculum and teaching experts emphasized conceptual understanding and the tools and skills of learning. However, political and intellectual trends also renewed educators' interest in curriculum subject matter. Social studies programs placed special emphasis on citizenship education in the s and '50s, international affairs in the s and '70s, and cultural diversity in the s and '90s.
From until the mids the Department ran a center for international programs to help educators understand non-western cultures. The secondary school science curriculum was revised in the late s, after a generation of relative neglect. The first science syllabus for the elementary grades had been issued in , and teaching of science on that level was finally mandated in , because of public concern over Soviet successes in space technology. Revised biology syllabi incorporated new knowledge in genetics and ecology; physics syllabi took account of discoveries in the sub-atomic realm.
By the s algebra, geometry, and trigonometry were being merged into integrated mathematics courses. In the s "new math" came and went. Around some special projects attempted "the humanization of the curriculum and the school as a whole," stressing social and environmental problems.
Summer schools for the arts, established in , gave instruction to students with special talents in music, drama, dance, and art. Today the Department issues a catalog listing nearly three hundred curriculum publications, almost all of them produced or revised since the Regents Action Plan to Improve Elementary and Secondary Education was adopted in The State Examinations Board first organized in appoints committees of teachers to prepare questions for Regents exams and to advise on development of syllabi.
Curriculum development is a multi-step process involving needs assessment, project planning, research and drafting, and field review and testing. Curricula are implemented with the help of a network of advisers, set up in Challenges of Urban Education. Huge numbers of newcomers from the countryside and from abroad crowded into New York's cities between the s and the s.
During that century, economic and social conditions increasingly favored the cause of mass elementary education -- basic literacy and numeracy. Though the gap between rich and poor was increasing, cities over the long term grew in size and overall wealth.
They could and did tax themselves to build and staff public schools, even though those schools were often overcrowded. Family ties were strong, though many families were broken up -- by death, seldom by divorce. Schools, churches, synagogues, fraternal lodges, union halls, and neighborhoods offered family-like social bonds that promoted, rather successfully, positive codes of behavior. The crime rate steadily declined from the s through the s , increasing safety and security for the young.
Since the s urban education has faced increasingly serious obstacles. The cities have lost population and wealth, relative to the inner and outer suburbs.
The general increase in personal wealth has stalled since the s, and New York is losing its economic preeminence in the United States. Urban crime rates climbed sharply from the s through the '80s, endangering public safety. Family ties and private social networks appeared to be less strong everywhere, not just in the inner cities.
Yet the schools and colleges are expected to teach the young much more, for more years, than ever before, to supply skilled workers for a highly competitive labor market.
And the cities and schools of New York have received a large influx of new immigrants from the American South, from Puerto Rico, and from many other countries.
The children of those newcomers need to be educated to become productive, responsible citizens -- a task for both the school and the community. Racial separation had long been present in New York's public school system.
Schools for African-Americans had existed in a few places since the eighteenth century, and such schools were specifically authorized by statutes passed in and A couple dozen communities operated "colored" schools during the middle decades of the nineteenth century. Laws of and passed at the urging of blacks forbade discrimination in access to schools on account of race.
However, state courts held in and that the separate schools for "colored children" were constitutional if they provided facilities equal to those for whites.
The statute permitting separate schools for blacks was repealed in In Commissioner George D. Stoddard ordered the closing of the state's last all-black school, in Rockland County. From a small presence in the later nineteenth century, New York's City's African-American population increased steadily during and after the two World Wars.
See footnote 8 The black population also grew in Rochester, Buffalo, and other larger cities. The Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education established a constitutional principle that racially segregated schools are inherently unequal. Nyquist led the Regents and the Department in a twenty-year long campaign to desegregate and integrate New York's urban school systems.
In the Department set up a division of intercultural relations to administer New York's anti-discrimination legislation the Educational Practices Act of and to help school districts achieve "racial balance. A Commissioner's advisory committee recommended integrating schools across entire districts, without regard to neighborhood boundaries. In June Commissioner Allen directed every school district to report its policy and plan for eliminating racial imbalance.
When progress was unsatisfactory in several New York City suburban districts and the Buffalo district, the Commissioner ordered them to implement plans for school desegregation; the courts upheld his authority to issue these orders. By twenty-two districts had programs to achieve racial balance. However, in the increasingly skeptical Legislature barred the assignment of pupils to particular schools "for the purpose of achieving equality in attendance. During the early s Commissioner Nyquist ordered several more urban districts to desegregate their schools.
The Department reviewed applications for federal grants to overcome "minority group isolation. However, after more than a decade of effort and controversy, school desegregation had not produced any definite overall improvements in pupil performance in inner-city schools. In public and Department attention largely focused on the demands for "community control" of New York City schools. In Commissioner Allen had recommended a "" plan for New York City's public schools, with integrated middle schools and new comprehensive high schools in campus-like settings.
The city was very slow to implement this plan. In , three experimental community school districts were set up in New York City, with support from the Ford Foundation. We appreciate her honesty, great sense of humor, and the close attention she pays to each child, and classroom dynamics.
Thank you, Mrs Duytschaver! He has learned a variety of music, and the history behind songs. My son is always singing wonderful songs to himself around the house, thank you Mr. Fordice for being a great role model and sharing joy through music.
Your concert at Mann was delightful! When people think about our schools, words like traditional and established come to mind, but also responsive , innovative , creative , inclusive , and progressive. For more than one hundred years, the Iowa City Community School District has been the instructional leader in eastern Iowa, across the state, and throughout the nation. A talented and dedicated staff is the foundation of our success.
Walking through the halls of our schools, you will notice the pride our employees take in their work. Everything we do is focused toward providing the finest educational opportunities for the children of our community. Expectations are high — for students and employees — and it shows time and time again in the recognition of our people and programs. Our community sets a high priority on the education of its youth.
There are many ways to measure the quality of education in a community. We feel confident that you will find that quality is the hallmark in each of our schools. When you visit our classrooms, you will see firsthand what educational excellence is all about in the Iowa City Community School District.
Murley Superintendent of Schools murley. Skip to Main Content. Home Our District ". September 23, September 27, Dine Out For Education. October 5, No School. October 7, October 8, No School. October 9, 6: October 23, 6: November 13, 6: November 15, End of First Trimester 58 Days. November 16, No School. Dine Out for Education: Unanimous Approval for Amendment to Teacher and Paraeducator Negotiated Agreements The Iowa City Community School District is proud to announce the unanimous approval of an amendment to the teacher and paraeducator negotiated agreements by the School Board during their September 11, meeting.
Faces of the District. Weber Elementary's Marnie Saeugling Comments