Energy intake and mental health
This is because the microbes produce a lot of gas and other chemicals, which contribute to the symptoms of intestinal discomfort We hope you will remember the following analogy as you study the wonders of early human development:. A mother's diet is critical for normal fetal development and having a health baby. He said that some people can become physically dependent on caffeine, with absence or reduction of coffee consumption in these individuals resulting in caffeine withdrawal. Associations between obesity and cognition in the pre-school years. Especially if you have a health condition, talk to your doctor before making significant changes to your eating plan.
The Developing Fetus
Emerging research has linked a diet focused on improving gut bacteria levels with positive brain development, behavior and moods, according to a Psychiatry report. To potentially gain these perks, consume a variety of gut-beneficial foods and drinks, such as kefir, miso soup, cruciferous vegetables and berries.
Because eating well can help you feel better physically and emotionally, it can make you more likely to seek and enjoy social activities. A study conducted at the University of Pennsylvania in linked good nutrition with positive social development in children. Instead, stick to an eating pattern rich in nutrients, staying hydrated with beverages such as water, low-fat milk and herbal tea. August McLaughlin is a health and sexuality writer and author of "Girl Boner: Skip to main content.
Physical Health Benefits It's no surprise that eating well affects your body in positive ways. Mental Health Benefits A healthy diet can have beneficial effects on your psyche. Social Health Benefits Because eating well can help you feel better physically and emotionally, it can make you more likely to seek and enjoy social activities.
Healthy Eating SF Gate. Depending on which text editor you're pasting into, you might have to add the italics to the site name. What she allows into her body during this time directly affects the growing embryo in her womb. Everything from what she eats and drinks to what substances she uses plays a role in how her fetus develops. For this reason, a woman who has even the slightest possibility of becoming pregnant should already be thinking about how her lifestyle choices affect pregnancy.
Gary Cunningham, Paul C. Appleton and Lange, , During the amazingly complex process of human prenatal development, body parts and body systems appear in the embryo at a remarkably young age and surprisingly small size. From fertilization through old age, this process and our health is impacted by our personal choices, the choices of those around us, and our environment. For example, when we choose proper nutrition and get regular exercise, our health is generally enhanced.
Likewise, if we choose to use harmful substances such as alcohol and tobacco, our health is generally impaired. Because the prenatal period is a time of preparation, pregnant women who avoid exposing themselves and their fetuses to harmful substances promote a lifetime of health for their children. The study of early human development is best begun by becoming familiar with the basic language of the field. Investing the time and effort to master these basic terms and definitions will prepare you to understand the descriptions that follow and enable you to explain them to others.
These terms describe stages, events, and time periods during pregnancy and early human development. All embryonic and fetal ages on this website refer to the time since fertilization. The ovaries contain immature reproductive cells called primary oocytes. Each month, a primary oocyte matures into a secondary oocyte and is released during ovulation into one of the uterine tubes. The day-to-day operation of much of the female reproductive system is highly sensitive to cyclical hormones which direct functions as diverse as maturation of oocytes, ovulation, muscle contractions of the walls of the uterine tubes and uterus, uterine wall thickness, and glandular secretions.
Incredibly, hormones direct the ovarian end of the uterine tubes to draw close to the ovary in time for ovulation, 20 and cause the number and types of cells lining the uterine tube and uterus to change cyclically.
Each uterine tube measures about 10 to 13 centimeters in length 21 and has an inside diameter between 22 1 and 2 millimeters. As shown in Figure 0. The uterine tubes are lined with several cell types, one of which has small projections, called cilia, which work to direct the oocyte or embryo down the uterine tube toward the uterus. The wall of each uterine tube contains two muscle layers which contract in rhythmic fashion to further direct transport of the oocyte, or in the case of fertilization, the embryo, toward and into the uterus.
The uterus is a small, muscular structure which, in the event of pregnancy, serves to house, nourish, and protect the embryo and fetus until birth and then expel the fetus during childbirth. For example, the adult uterus prior to a first pregnancy measures about 6 to 8 centimeters in length and weighs about 70 grams. By the end of full-term pregnancy, the uterus weighs approximately grams and displaces a volume of about five liters. The uterus is divided into distinct regions Fig. The upper corners of the uterus where the uterine tubes enter are called the cornu.
The upper two thirds of the uterus is called the body and the uppermost part of the body between the insertion sites of both tubes is called the fundus. The cervix refers to the lower third of the uterus and is separated from the body by a narrowing called the isthmus. Within the cervix lies the cervical canal which has an upper, internal opening called the internal os and a lower opening into the vagina called the external os.
The wall of the uterus contains 3 distinct sections called the endometrium , myometrium , and perimetrium. The endometrium forms the inner lining of the uterus and undergoes dramatic cyclical changes as part of the menstrual cycle.
Its thickness varies from about. The myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall and is composed of smooth muscle and connective tissue. The myometrium is 12 to 15 millimeters thick, 30 makes up the vast majority of the uterine wall, and expands greatly during pregnancy. The muscle component is most prominent in the body of the uterus and least prominent near the cervix.
The perimetrium is the thin outer covering of the uterus 32 and is not of particular interest in this discussion. The vagina receives the male reproductive cells and serves as the birth canal through which the fetus passes during childbirth. The process of forming female reproductive cells, called oocytes, is called oogenesis.
Female reproductive cells form in the ovaries, which contain four important cell types called oocytes , follicular cells, granulosa cells, and theca cells. Each oocyte and its surrounding cells form a functional unit called a follicle. The type, size, structure, and complexity of follicles will be further described below.
Primary germ cells are the source of oocytes. In the human embryo, about to primary germ cells 34 travel to the developing ovaries from the yolk sac See UNIT 5 during the 5th week of embryonic development. Between 3 and 4 months, the oogonia begin to enlarge and start their first meiotic division and are called primary oocytes. By birth, only 2 million are present. During the fetal period, each primary oocyte achieves a diameter of 20 micrometers and is surrounded by a single layer of flat epithelial cells called follicular cells.
Little change occurs in these follicles until puberty when the menstrual cycles begin as described below. The pituitary gland is located just underneath the brain and produces a total of 8 hormones which control numerous vital functions of the human body. As each menstrual cycle begins, FSH and LH activate between 6 and 20 primordial follicles to begin a rapid growth phase.
An acellular material called the zona pellucida forms between the oocyte and the granulosa cells. The cells surrounding the oocyte are now called granulosa cells and the cells surrounding the granulosa cells are called theca cells. The primary oocyte now has a diameter of 50 to 80 micrometers. During this process, granulosa cells and theca cells gain the ability to produce a hormone called estrogen.
During this process, these antral follicles including the oocyte within grow substantially in size adjacent to the antrum and are sometimes called vesicular follicles 53 Fig. By about 1 week into the cycle, 1 of the follicles distinguishes itself by growing the fastest and the others begin to shrink. Nonidentical twins occur when 2 follicles release their oocytes nearly simultaneously and both become fertilized and implanted. Ovulation is preceded by a 6- to fold increase in LH levels, a 2- to 3-fold increase in FSH, a fall in estrogen levels, and a rise in progesterone levels Figure coming soon.
Note that without the LH peak about 16 hours prior to ovulation - some authorities report the LH surge precedes ovulation by up to 36 hours , ovulation will not occur. This division creates 2 very unequal daughter cells - 1 large cell which contains most of the cell contents and is destined to begin meiosis II, and 1 cell called a polar body destined to degenerate.
The follicle is now ready to release its oocyte during ovulation. The preovulatory follicle has a diameter between 1 and 1. Ovulation is marked by a breakdown in the wall of the follicle at the surface of the ovary.