Gas Exchange in the Human Respiratory System

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Intravenous Pyelography (IVP, Excretory Urography)
It is about being fully aware of how much and of what you are ingesting, and how by doing so you can lead a healthy lifestyle. The members of these groups are brothers in a more intimate sense than are the rest of humanity. And as such - what works for one person may not work for you and vice-versa. They come equipped with special sensors that keep track of the orientation of the sun and a communications system that corresponds with autonomous drones nearby. All of those diseases can kill you.

Psychological aspects

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If we pray aright--but that is the great trouble. We are generally much more concerned about temporal things than we are about spiritual upliftment. Churches will hold special meetings to pray for rain! And the chaplains of opposing armies or navies will even pray before a battle that success may follow their arms!

That is prayer to the Race God, Who fights the battles of His people, gives them increase of flocks and herds, fills their granaries and caters to the material wants. Such prayers are not even purifying.

They are from the desire body, which sums up the situation thus: Now Lord, I am keeping your commandments to the best of my ability and I want You to do Your part in return. Christ gave to humanity a prayer that is, like himself, unique and all-embracing. In it there are seven distinct and separate prayers; one for each of the seven principles of man--the threefold body, the threefold spirit and the link of mind.

Each prayer is peculiarly adapted to promote the progression of that part of composite man to which it refers. The purpose of the prayer relating to the threefold body is the spiritualization of those vehicles and the extraction therefrom of the threefold soul. The prayers relating to the threefold spirit prepare it to receive the extracted essence, the threefold soul. The prayer for the link of mind is to keep it in its proper relation as a tie between the higher and the lower nature.

The third help to be given to humanity will be the Religion of the Father. We can have very little conception of what that will be, save that the ideal will be even higher than Brotherhood and that by it the dense body will be spiritualized. The Religions of the Holy Spirit, the Race religions, were for the uplifting of the human race through a feeling of kinship limited to a group--family, tribe or nation.

The purpose of the Religion of The Son, Christ, is to further uplift mankind by forming it into a Universal Brotherhood of separate individuals. The ideal of the Religion of The Father will be the elimination of all separateness, merging all into One, so that there will be no "I" nor "Thou," but all will be One in reality. This will not come to pass while we are still inhabitants of the physical Earth, but in a future state where we shall realize our unity with all, each having access to all the knowledge garnered by each separate individual.

Just as the single facet of a diamond has access to all the light that comes through each of the other facets, is one with them, yet bounded by lines which give it a certain individuality without separateness , so will the individual spirit retain the memory of its particular experiences , while giving to all others the fruits of its individual existence.

These are the steps and stages through which humanity is unconsciously being led. In past ages the Race spirit reigned alone. Man was content with a patriarchal and paternal government in which he had no part.

Now all over the world we see signs of the breaking down of the old system. The caste system, which was the stronghold of England in India, is crumbling. Instead of being separated into small groups, the people are uniting in the demand that the oppressor shall depart and leave them to live in freedom under a government of, by and for the people. Russia is torn by strife for freedom from a dictatorial, autocratic government.

Turkey has awakened and taken a long stride toward liberty. Here in our own land, where we are supposed to be in the actual enjoyment of such liberty as others are, as yet, only able to covet or fight for, we are not yet satisfied. We are learning that there are other oppressions than those of an autocratic monarchy. We see that we have still industrial freedom to gain. We are chafing under the yoke of the trusts and an insane system of competition.

We are trending toward co-operation, which is now practiced by the trusts within their own confines for private profit. We are desirous of a state of society where "they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig tree; and none shall make them afraid. Nations, as such, have had their day and are unwittingly working toward Universal Brotherhood in accordance with the design of our invisible Leaders, who are none the less potent in shaping events because they are not officially seated in the councils of nations.

These are the slow means by which the different bodies of humanity at large are being purified, but the aspirant to the higher knowledge works consciously to attain to these ends, by well-defined methods, according to his constitution. Yoga means Union and, as in the West, the object of the aspirant is union with the Higher Self; but to be efficacious, the methods of seeking that union must differ. The vehicles of a Hindu are very differently constituted from those of a Caucasian.

The Hindus have lived for many, many thousands of years in an environment and climate totally different from ours. They have pursued a different method of thought and their civilization, though of a very high order, is different from ours in its effects.

Therefore it would be useless for us to adopt their methods, which are the outcome of the highest occult knowledge and perfectly suited to them, but as unsuitable for the people of the West as a diet of oats would be for a lion. For instance, in some systems it is required that the yogi shall sit in certain positions, that particular cosmic currents may flow through his body in a certain way to produce certain definite results.

That instruction would be altogether useless for a Caucasian, as he is absolutely impervious to those currents, because of his way of living.

If he is to attain results at all, he must work in harmony with the constitution of his vehicles. That is why the "Mysteries" were established in different parts of Europe during the Middle Ages. The Alchemists were deep students of the higher occult science.

The popular belief that the object of their study and experimenting was the transmutation of baser metals into gold, was because they chose that symbolic way of describing their true work, which was the transmutation of the lower nature into spirit.

It was thus described to lull the suspicions of the priests, without stating a falsehood. The statement that the Rosicrucians were a society devoted to the discovery and use of the formula for the making of the "Philosopher's Stone" was and is true.

It is also true that most people have handled and do often handle this wondrous stone. It is common, but of no avail to any but the individual who makes it for himself. The formula is given in the esoteric training and a Rosicrucian is no different in that respect from the occultist of any other school.

All are engaged in the making of this coveted stone, each, however, using his own methods, as there are no two individuals alike and consequently really effective work is always individual in its scope. All occult schools are divisible into seven, as are the "Rays" of Life, the virgin spirits.

Each School or Order belongs to one of these seven Rays, as does each unit of our humanity. Therefore any individual seeking to unite with one of these occult groups, the "Brothers" in which do not belong to his Ray, cannot do so with benefit to himself. The members of these groups are brothers in a more intimate sense than are the rest of humanity. Perhaps if these seven Rays are compared to the seven colors of the spectrum, their relation to one another can be better understood.

For instance, if a red ray were to ally itself with a green ray, inharmony would result. The same principle applies to spirits. Each must proceed with the group to which it belongs during manifestation, yet they are all one.

As all the colors are contained in the white light, but the refractive quality of our atmosphere seems to divide it into seven colors, so the illusory conditions of concrete existence cause the virgin spirits to seem grouped and this apparent grouping will abide while we are in this state. The Rosicrucian Order was started particularly for those whose high degree of intellectual development caused them to repudiate the heart. Intellect imperiously demands a logical explanation of everything--the world mystery, the questions of life and death.

The reasons for and the modus operandi of existence were not explained by the priestly injunction "not to seek to know the mysteries of God. Intellectual knowledge is but a means to an end, not the end itself. Therefore, the Rosicrucian purposes first of all to satisfy the aspirant for knowledge that everything in the universe is reasonable, thus winning over the rebellious intellect. When it has ceased to criticize and is ready to accept provisionally, as probably true, statements which cannot be immediately verified, then, and not until then, will esoteric training be effective in developing the higher faculties whereby man passes from faith to first-hand knowledge.

Yet, even then it will be found that, as the pupil progresses in first-hand knowledge and becomes able to investigate for himself, there are always truths ahead of him that he knows to be truths, but which he is not yet advanced sufficiently to investigate.

The pupil will do well to remember that nothing that is not logical can exist in the universe and that logic is the surest guide in all the Worlds, but he must not forget that his faculties are limited and that more than his own powers of logical reasoning may be needed to solve a given problem, although it may, nevertheless, be susceptible of full explanation, but by lines of reasoning which are beyond the capacity of the pupil at that stage of his development. Another point that must be borne in mind is that unwavering confidence in the teacher is absolutely necessary.

The foregoing is recommended to the particular consideration of all who intend taking the first steps toward the higher knowledge. If the directions given are followed at all, they must be given full credence as an efficacious means to accomplish their purpose. To follow them in a half-hearted manner would be of no avail whatever. Unbelief will kill the fairest flower ever produced by the spirit. Work on the different bodies of man is carried on synchronously. One body cannot be influenced without affecting the others, but the principal work may be done on any one of them.

If strict attention is paid to hygiene and diet, the dense body is the one principally affected, but at the same time there is also an effect on the vital body and the desire body for, as purer and better materials are built into the dense body, the particles are enveloped in purer planetary ether and desire-stuff also, therefore the planetary parts of the vital and desire bodies become purer.

If attention is paid to food and hygiene only, the personal vital and desire bodies may remain almost as impure as before, but it has become just a little easier to get into touch with the good than if gross food were used. On the other hand if, despite annoyances, an equable temper is cultivated, also literary and artistic tastes, the vital body will produce an effect of daintiness and fastidiousness in physical matters and will also engender ennobling feelings and emotions in the desire body.

Seeking to cultivate the emotions also reacts upon the other vehicles and helps to improve them. The first visible state of a human embryo is a small, globulous, pulpy or jelly-like substance, similar to albumen, or the white of an egg.

If testes develop, the hormone they secrete causes the Müllerian duct to degenerate and almost vanish and causes the Wolffian duct to elaborate into the sperm-carrying tubes and related organs the vas deferens , epididymis, and seminal vesicles, for example.

If ovaries develop, the Wolffian duct deteriorates, and the Müllerian duct elaborates to form the fallopian tubes, uterus, and part of the vagina. The external genitalia simultaneously change. The genital protrusion becomes either a penis or clitoris. In the female the groove below the clitoris stays open to form the vulva , and the folds on either side of the groove become the inner lips of the vulva the labia minora.

In the male these folds grow together, converting the groove into the urethral tube of the penis. The ridgelike swellings on either side remain apart in the female and constitute the large labia labia majora , but in the male they grow together to form the scrotal sac into which the testes subsequently descend. At birth both male and female have all the neurophysiological equipment necessary for sexual response, although the reproductive system is not at this stage functional.

Sexual interests, sexual behaviour, and sexual response are seen with increasing frequency in most children from infancy on. Even newborn males have penile erections, and babies of both sexes seem to find pleasure in genital stimulation.

What appears to be orgasm has been observed in infant boys and girls, and, later in childhood, orgasm definitely can occur in masturbation or sex play. Puberty may be defined as that short period of time generally two years during which the reproductive system matures and the secondary sexual characteristics appear. The ovaries and testes begin producing much larger amounts of hormones, pubic hair appears, female breasts develop, the menstrual cycle begins in females, spermatozoa and viable eggs are produced, and males experience voice change and a sudden acceleration in growth.

Puberty generally occurs in females around age 12—13 and in males at about 13—14, but there is much individual variation. With puberty there is generally an intensification or the first appearance of sexual interest. Puberty marks the beginning of adolescence. By the latter point, which occurs around age 16 in females and 18 in males, the individual has adult anatomy and physiology.

In late adolescence the majority of individuals are probably at their peak in terms of sexual capacity: During this period the sex drive is at its maximum in males, although it is difficult to say whether this is also true of females, since female sexuality, in many societies, is frequently suppressed during adolescence.

Following adolescence there are about three decades of adult life during which physiological changes are slow and gradual. While muscular strength increases for a time, the changes may best be described as slow deterioration. This physical decline is not immediately evident in sexual behaviour, which often increases in quantity and quality as the individual develops more social skills and higher socio-economic status and loses some of the inhibitions and uncertainties that often impede adolescent sexuality.

Indeed, in the case of the United States female, the deterioration is more than offset by her gradual loss of sexual inhibition, and the effect of age is not clear until menopausal symptoms begin.

In the male, however, there is no such masking of deterioration, and the frequency of sexual activity and the intensity of interest and response slowly, but inexorably, decline. If one must arbitrarily select an age to mark the beginning of old age , 50 is appropriate.

By then, most females have experienced menopausal symptoms, and most males have been forced to recognize their increasing physical limitations. With menopause , the female genitalia gradually begin to atrophy and the amount of vaginal secretion diminishes—this is the direct consequence of the cessation of ovarian function and can be prevented, or the symptoms reversed, by administering estrogen.

If a female has had a good sexual adjustment prior to menopause and if she does not believe in the fallacy that it spells the end of sexual life, menopause will have no adverse effect on her sexual and orgasmic ability. There is reason to believe that if a woman remains in good health and genital atrophy is prevented, she could enjoy sexual activity regardless of age.

Males in good health are also capable of continuing sexual activity, although with an ever-decreasing frequency, throughout old age. The amount of ejaculate becomes less, but most old males are still fertile. One must remember, however, that some unknown but certainly substantial proportion of this impotence may be attributed to poor health.

In general, the female withstands the onslaughts of age better than the male. The reduction in the frequency of marital intercourse or even its abandonment is more often than not the result of male deterioration.

Physiology sets only very broad limits on human sexuality; most of the enormous variation found among humans must be attributed to the psychological factors of learning and conditioning. The human infant is born simply with the ability to respond sexually to tactile stimulation. It is only later and gradually that the individual learns or is conditioned to respond to other stimuli, to develop a sexual attraction to males or females or both, to interpret some stimuli as sexual and others as nonsexual, and to control in some measure his or her sexual response.

In other words, the general and diffuse sexuality of the infant becomes increasingly elaborated, differentiated , and specific. The early years of life are, therefore, of paramount importance in the development of what ultimately becomes adult sexual orientation. There appears to be a reasonably fixed sequence of development. Before age five, the child develops a sense of gender identity , thinks of himself or herself as a boy or girl, and begins to relate to others differently according to their gender.

Through experience the child learns what behaviour is rewarded and what is punished and what sorts of behaviour are expected of him or her. Other functions include salt balance in the body and blood and the production of important hormones. The excretory system consists of the kidneys, bladder, ureters and urethra.

Common excretory diseases can affect any part of the system and cause serious complications if left untreated. Kidney stones are hard masses that form in the urinary tract from crystals that have separated from the urine. The most common type of kidney stone is formed from calcium, but other types include a struvite stone or uric acid stone, according to the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse.

The exact cause of kidney stones is unknown, but those with certain genetic disorders, kidney disorders and recurrent urinary tract infections are more likely to develop kidney stones. Symptoms of kidney stones include extreme pain, cramping in the back and lower abdomen, nausea and vomiting. Most kidney stones can be passed by increasing daily fluid intake to two to three quarts of water per day.

If stones are too large to pass with an increase in water consumption, surgery may be needed to break the stones. Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra caused by a bacterial or viral infection. The infection can be caused by the same microbes that cause urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, chlamydia and herpes simplex. Symptoms of urethritis vary between the sexes.

Digestive and excretory systems