Gastrointestinal regulation of food intake

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Brain regulation of appetite and satiety
Melanin-concentrating hormone 1 receptor-deficient mice are lean, hyperactive, and hyperphagic and have altered metabolism. On the other hand, the lack of POMC or functional melanocortin-4 receptor caused hyperphagia and obesity [ 41 , 42 ]. The site of action for ghrelin on feeding is thought to be the hypothalamus, where the growth hormone secretagogue receptor which mediates the cellular action of ghrelin is found in the ventromedial and arcuate nuclei, in particular neurons coexpressing NPY and AGRP [ 25 , 26 ]. The increasingly nuanced understanding of the mechanisms mediating gut-peptide regulation and action provides promising targets for new strategies to combat obesity and diabetes. Also, interestingly enough, high fat diets have a higher satiety value than carbohydrate diets.

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Hunger (motivational state)

Examples of such signals include the falling or rising fuels within the blood, such as blood glucose, and chemical and nervous signals from the gut and the liver. The levels of hormones in the blood then signal the hypothalamus to stimulate hunger or satiation. Examples of hormones and hormone-like substances that stimulate food intake include neuripeptide Y and galanin, while those that create feelings of satiety include leptin, cholecystokinin, and serotonin.

Foods containing protein have the highest satiety value. This means that a ham sandwich will cause us to feel full for a longer period of time than will a tossed salad and toast, even if both meals have exactly the same number of calories.

Also, interestingly enough, high fat diets have a higher satiety value than carbohydrate diets. Another factor affecting hunger is how bulky the meal is, that is, how much fiber and water is within the food. Bulky meals tend to stretch the stomach and small intestine, which sends signals back to the hypothalamus telling us that we are full so we stop eating.

Beverages tend to be less satisfying that semisolid foods, and semisolid foods have a lower satiety value than solid foods. For example, if you were to eat a bunch of grapes, you would feel a greater sense of fullness than if you drank a glass of grape juice.

Related Articles Read more from Strength. Welcome to the Other Half of Health and Wellness: The Importance of Fiber. Dealing with Smoking Cravings. Close Window Loading, Please Wait! This may take a second or two. The satiety center in animals is located in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Short-term regulation of hunger and food intake involves neural signals from the GI tract, blood levels of nutrients, GI tract hormones, and psychological factors.

One method that the brain uses to evaluate the contents of the gut is through vagal nerve fibers that carry signals between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract GI tract. Stretch receptors work to inhibit appetite upon distention of the GI tract by sending signals along the vagus nerve afferent pathway and inhibiting the hunger center. Blood levels of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids provide a constant flow of information to the brain that may be linked to regulating hunger and energy intake.

Nutrient signals that indicate fullness, and therefore inhibit hunger include the following: The hormones insulin and cholecystokinin CCK are released from the GI tract during food absorption and act to suppress feeling of hunger. CCK is key in suppressing hunger because of its role in inhibiting neuropeptide Y. Glucagon and epinephrine levels rise during fasting and stimulate hunger. Ghrelin , a hormone produced by the stomach, is a hunger stimulant. Two psychological processes appear to be involved in regulating short-term food intake: Liking refers to the palatability or taste of the food, which is reduced by repeated consumption.

Wanting is the motivation to consume the food, which is also reduced by repeated consumption of a food [10] and may be due to change in memory-related processes. Thoughts of a food may intrude on consciousness and be elaborated on, for instance, as when one sees a commercial or smells a desirable food. Leptin , a hormone secreted exclusively by adipose cells in response to an increase in body fat mass, is an important component in the regulation of long term hunger and food intake. Leptin serves as the brain's indicator of the body's total energy stores.

When leptin levels rise in the bloodstream they bind to receptors in ARC. The functions of leptin are to:. Though rising blood levels of leptin do promote weight loss to some extent, its main role is to protect the body against weight loss in times of nutritional deprivation. Other factors also have been shown to effect long-term hunger and food intake regulation including insulin. The set-point theories of hunger and eating are a group of theories developed in the s and s that operate under the assumption that hunger is the result of an energy deficit and that eating is a means by which energy resources are returned to their optimal level, or energy set-point.

According to this assumption, a person's energy resources are thought to be at or near their set-point soon after eating, and are thought to decline after that. Once the person's energy levels fall below a certain threshold, the sensation of hunger is experienced, which is the body's way of motivating the person to eat again.

The set-point assumption is a negative feedback mechanism. The set-point theories of hunger and eating present a number of weaknesses. Leptin is the chemical that tells the brain that the body is satiated. The stomach and intestines are also on the lookout for a sense of fullness, which you feel as you eat your meals.

This leads the body to lose leptin at a slower rate. When someone wants to lose weight, they could have a hard time due to problems in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Experts believe that you can reset the hypothalamus with the consumption of certain vitamins and foods. They recommend B vitamins, which can help with metabolizing carbs. Vitamin B in foods like chicken, fish, and eggs are thought to help, too.

Foods that have nutrients that increase nervous system function or improve mood are thought to be good for resetting the hypothalamus. Essential fatty acids and omega-3s from fish and nuts are recommended in the diet. This regulation is essential for keeping the body from becoming so hungry that you ruin your diet by making bad choices out of extreme hunger. The Hypothalamus and Hunger While leptin and ghrelin are hormones produced by the body to signal hunger as well as satiation, the hypothalamus has receptors for these hormones.

Lateral Hypothalamus — Known for hunger recognition Ventromedial Hypothalamus — Recognizes the feeling of fullness Paraventricular Hypothalamus — Regulates hunger Motivation Motivation to eat comes from hunger.

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