Diet (nutrition)

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An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, environments, health care organization and health policy , one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. The maintenance of strong social relationships , volunteering , and other social activities have been linked to positive mental health and also increased longevity. Lipase isoforms and amylase isoenzymes: Which, you have to admit, is interesting. MSG, you may know, is classified as an excitotoxin by Dr. This presentation will be a brief run-down of historical developments in international space law, the reasons why international law-making is now difficult and the challenges this poses in the face of rapidly expanding technology, an analysis of how the existing framework anticipates the management of natural resource exploitation in outer space, a reconciliation of seemingly inconsistent relevant principles regarding celestial body exploitation, the implications of recent national law developments, and a suggestion for the most appropriate path forward. EMF exposures destroy health and well-being, claims panel of top international scientists http:

Organisation (or lack of it)!

Campbell's Biology, 8th Edition

Some cultures and religions have restrictions concerning what foods are acceptable in their diet. For example, only Kosher foods are permitted by Judaism , and Halal foods by Islam. Although Buddhists are generally vegetarians , the practice varies and meat-eating may be permitted depending on the sects. Jains are strictly vegetarian and consumption of roots is not permitted. Many people choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees e.

These diets may require tuning or supplementation such as vitamins to meet ordinary nutritional needs. A particular diet may be chosen to seek weight loss or weight gain. Changing a subject's dietary intake, or "going on a diet", can change the energy balance and increase or decrease the amount of fat stored by the body.

Some foods are specifically recommended, or even altered, for conformity to the requirements of a particular diet. These diets are often recommended in conjunction with exercise. Specific weight loss programs can be harmful to health, while others may be beneficial and can thus be coined as healthy diets. The terms "healthy diet" and "diet for weight management" are often related, as the two promote healthy weight management.

Having a healthy diet is a way to prevent health problems, and will provide the body with the right balance of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. An eating disorder is a mental disorder that interferes with normal food consumption. It is defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive diet. A healthy diet may improve or maintain optimal health. In developed countries , affluence enables unconstrained caloric intake and possibly inappropriate food choices.

Health agencies recommend that people maintain a normal weight by limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, eating plant-based food, limiting consumption of red and processed meat, and limiting alcohol intake. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans is an evidence-based information source that policy makers and health professionals use to advise the general public about healthy nutrition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

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This article is about the human diet. Discussion of analogs that affect human physiology such as bed rest and dry immersion will be included. Collaborations with international partners in ground-based analogs will also be highlighted. The use of analogs to investigate and mitigate risks during long duration spaceflight has been an accepted practice since the beginning of human spaceflight.

With NASA actively engaged in the planning of long duration manned missions, there is a need to increase the fidelity of existing analogs. It is particularly important to focus on analogs capable of supporting planetary operations, especially with the development of new systems designed to support the simulation and training required for these missions.

Planetary science missions are among the most complex systems that humanity builds, are developed over three to ten years, cost hundreds of millions to billions of dollars, and have fixed launch periods. Projects are formulated to address specific scientific objectives that drive planetary science forward, but also are influenced by technical, political and cultural factors.

The development of projects are complex affairs that are typically dominated by large engineering teams that are needed to design and build the spacecraft. Scientists advise the project during this phase by drafting science requirements that define what the spacecraft must do, defining the environments the spacecraft must operate in, and building scientific instruments to make the observations needed to address the scientific objectives.

The operations phase of projects typically includes most of the science team participating in an orchestrated process designed to make timely strategic and tactical decisions to acquire the data needed to answer the science objectives of the mission. Thenkabail Research Geographer, U. Thenkabail is a Research Geographer with the U.

Monitoring of global croplands GCs is imperative for ensuring sustainable water and food security for the people of the world in the Twenty-first Century. However, the currently available cropland products suffer from major limitations such as: This research aims overcome the above mentioned limitations through development of a set of Global Food Security-support analysis data at 30 m GFSAD30 resolution consisting of four distinct products:. Large volumes of ground data are sourced through various crowdsourcing mechanisms and integrated on a web platform: Knowledge Gains and Knowledge Gaps Dr.

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Argiculture and Vegetation: Knowledge Gains and Knowledge Gaps. MMS uses four identical spacecraft, flown in formation in Earth orbit, to make three-dimensional measurements of the plasma in the magnetospheric boundary regions and investigate the fundamental energy transfer process of magnetic reconnection.

Tooley joined the MMS Team as Project Manager in May and continues to manage the mission through its 6 month on-orbit commissioning phase. Prior to being assigned as the MMS project manager Mr. Tooley also worked as part of the EVA Servicing Team, which developed procedures and trained astronauts for the successful SM3B servicing mission in Triana was a Space Shuttle launched earth science mission which was to provide continuous global observation from a libration point L1.

Tooley also directly led the engineering development of the in-house Upper Stage and Space Shuttle Airborne Support Equipment required for the Triana mission. Reconnection limits the performance of fusion reactors and is the final governor of geospace weather that affects modern technological systems such as telecommunications networks, GPS navigation, and electrical power grids.

Four identically instrumented spacecraft measure plasmas, fields, and particles in a near-equatorial orbit that will frequently encounter reconnection in action.

Since joining the FAA in , he has provided industry and policy analysis including representing the Department of Transportation in White House-interagency deliberations on the National Space Policy and and the National Space Transportation Policy and Sloan established an FAA strategy for international commercial space transportation outreach including the international promotion and adoption of FAA regulations.

The committee runs technical paper sessions at the annual International Astronautical Congress. Prior to joining the FAA, Mr. He also worked as a space policy analyst for Aries Analytics Inc. Department of Transportation, has licensed over launches since The FAA licenses, regulates, and promotes U. There are 9 licensed spaceports in the U. Although the FAA licenses launch and reentry for public safety, it does not have authority for in-orbit space transportation.

AST staff has grown to 81 people with a budget request to add more in FY With NASA increasingly shifting to commercial launch services for supply of the International Space Station and return and soon for astronaut crew transfer, the visibility of the commercial space transportation industry has increased.

Separately, the FAA is promoting its regulations for international adoption as suborbital companies market their services outside the United States. All of these indicators are a sign of U. This presentation will cover an introduction to FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation and policy issues faced by the office and commercial industry including gaps in regulatory authority.

The presentation will also include the competitive position of the U. March 30, InSight: A Discovery Mission to Mars Dr. His research focuses on the geological history of the planet Mars and geophysical investigations of the interiors of terrestrial planets using analyses of gravity, magnetic, topographic and seismic data. In addition, he served as the Project Scientist for the Mars Exploration Rovers for six years, helped develop a broad-band MEMS seismometer, and has been working for the past 25 years to send seismometers to other planets, particularly Mars.

He holds a B. He has served on many NASA and National Academy of Sciences advisory panels on planetary and space science and has published over 60 journal articles, reports and book chapters. Banerdt is currently the Principal Investigator of the InSight Discovery mission, a Mars geophysical lander that will launch in March of and spend an entire Mars year measuring seismic activity, heat flow and planetary rotation.

It will land six months later in Elysium Planitia to begin a two-year primary mission. It reuses much of the design from the previous Phoenix mission to control cost and risk, two things that are critical for the selection and success of a cost-capped Discovery mission.

Unlike previous missions to Mars, which have focused on surface features and chemistry, InSight aims to explore the interior of the planet down to its very core. The planet Mars is a keystone in our quest for understanding the early processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution. Unlike the Earth, its overall structure appears to be relatively unchanged since a few hundred million years after formation.

Unlike the Moon, it is large enough that the pressure-temperature conditions within the planet span an appreciable fraction of the terrestrial planet range. Thus the large-scale chemical and structural evidence within Mars should tell us a great deal about the processes of planetary differentiation and thermal evolution. InSight will pursue its fundamental science goals by performing the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical measurements on Mars, using seismology, precision tracking, and heat flow measurements.

The limitation to a single location provides challenges to traditional seismology, which can be overcome with the application of single-station techniques that have been developed for terrestrial observations. A Discovery Mission to Mars. Kevin McGouldrick attended The Pennsylvania State University as an undergrad, where he hoped to be able to discern which of his two scientific loves he should pursue as a career, astronomy or meteorology. Instead, while there, he was introduced to Dr. Jim Kasting, who showed him that he could do both by pursuing studies in the field of planetary atmospheres.

Brian Toon, defending his thesis on the interactions between the microphysics and the radiative transfer in the middle and lower clouds of Venus in More recently, he has been working on an as yet incomplete project to reanalyze Pioneer Venus UVS data to improve the estimates of SO2 in the Venus atmosphere from that era, and to compare it to more current observations from Venus Express.

The two defining characteristics of the planet Venus are its atmospheric super-rotation and the planet-enshrouding cloud layers. But for its massive greenhouse effect, the planet Venus would be even cooler than Earth, despite being located closer to the Sun. The clouds play a pivotal role here, too, as they are the fourth largest contributor to this greenhouse effect, following CO2, H2O, and SO2. Thus, a large fraction of the incident solar flux and a significant fraction of the upwelling infrared flux are absorbed by the Venusian cloud layers.

This energy deposition possibly plays a significant role in sustaining the global super-rotation of Venus in which the entire atmosphere circles the planet with periods of as little as four days at the cloud tops.

However, these clouds are also highly variable, especially when viewed at ultraviolet and near infrared wavelengths. The Clouds of Venus in a Global Context. Nicolle Zellner is an associate professor of physics at Albion College in Albion, MI, where she teaches introductory and advanced astronomy and physics courses. She studies lunar impact glasses to interpret the bombardment history of the Moon and Earth , and a second project focuses on understanding how the chemistry of simple molecules is affected by impacts.

She spent two months there, and she and the team collected over meteorites! Her undergraduate degree, with majors in Physics and Astronomy and a certification in Environmental Studies, is from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The Moon continues to provide scientific answers — and pose new questions — over 40 years after the last Apollo mission.

Understanding the ages of impact glasses, along with their compositions, allows us to begin to piece together information about the rate of impact events in the inner Solar System and their effects on Earth. Important questions that can be answered include determining the form of the large-impact distribution with respect to time e. A New low cost paradigm for Mars science missions Mr. David is a research and development mechanical engineer at the NASA Ames Research Center working on Mars exploration technologies for spacecraft sample handling equipment, subsurface drilling and life search instruments.

During the last years, he has involvement in three major projects. The first is the concept development of a Mars sample return mission using the SpaceX Dragon capsule, in the areas of sample retrieval and handling, structural design, the Earth return vehicle design, and the in-situ resource utilization concept design version. During this Colloquium talk the feasibility of reducing mission cost by adopting the emerging commercial capabilities, in particular the SpaceX Falcon Heavy launcher that can deliver an un-manned Dragon crew capsule to Mars will be presented.

Mars Exploration and Sample Return using Dragon: A New low cost paradigm for Mars science missions. April 30, Remote Sensing and Locusts: The 21st Century Science vs. The Biblical Enemy of Agriculturists Dr. One of the main areas of his outreach activities in this domain is educating people in the West on best ways to control rangeland grasshoppers and other pests.

Remote Sensing and Locusts: The Biblical Enemy of Agriculturists. In this capacity, he is responsible for top level strategic planning of KSC investments in research and technology areas of the NASA Technology Area roadmaps and coordinating those efforts across multiple projects and organizations. He served as visiting faculty for ISU in and in , he was named as an adjunct professor for the International Space University. Tracy has nearly 20 years of Shuttle and ISS payload processing experience.

Prior to his involvement with the Research and Technology Management Office, Tracy was also involved on the Constellation program supporting the Orion, Ground Operations, Altair, and Lunar Surface Systems projects, developing initial requirements and planning concepts of operations. He was responsible for leading members of a multi-center team, designing and building a habitat system to support analog testing of advanced habitation systems.

In this capacity, he led the systems integration effort, defining how sub-systems would be installed and configured and how they worked together to satisfy the requirements of the habitat prototype. She continues to carry out research and serve on advisory committees in both space and disaster-related areas.

Much of her research has focused on the influence of personality and cultural factors on individual and group functioning. She has conducted extensive space analog research on personality, behavioral functioning, and team processes of different polar expedition groups, studying teams composed of single gender, mixed gender, and cross-national members as an analog for space missions, and continues research in this area.

Over a 13 year period, she was co-PI on NASA-funded research on the development and testing of cooling garments for space purposes, with a particular focus on the subjective perception of comfort and thermal status.

Leon collaborated with Russian and Belarus colleagues investigating the psychological status and health attitudes and concerns in a population affected by the Chernobyl disaster; the psychological status of Chernobyl power plant workers; the translation and standardization of the Russian language version of the MMPI-2 and other personality measures.

The psychological criteria used to select international crews for lunar and Mars exploration missions has been a subject of considerable discussion; strategies for maintaining optimal functioning during the mission also present considerable challenges. A change in emphasis in the initial astronaut applicant screening process is needed, from ruling out psychopathology to identifying adaptive personality traits to enhance individual and group performance over an extended period of time.

During the mission, psychological dysfunction and crew conflicts among highly diverse mixed gender and cultural crews need to be anticipated and dealt with. Studies of polar expedition teams as an analog of planetary exploration can inform about adaptive personality traits and decision-making processes in extreme environments.

Findings from a longitudinal study of the Danish Sirius Patrol teams operating in Greenland indicated the importance of systematic interpersonal communication training prior to the start of a long-duration mission.

In addition, considering the 2. Ray has worked on bioregenerative life support research and development since University of Wisconsin and then KSC from to the present. In particular, his work focused on lighting and CO2 concentration effects on plant growth and development, and the use of hydroponic techniques for production systems.

Ray is the author or co-author of over scientific papers and has presented over 60 invited talks since Space travel to Mars, even for early fly-by missions, will require meeting all the life support needs of the human crew. This includes oxygen, food, and clean water. Bioregenerative life support approaches for space, such as using plants to generate oxygen and food have been discussed f or many years, and become increasingly cost-effective for longer duration missions.

The plants could provide a constant source of high value, perishable fruits and vegetables to improve the nutrition and acceptability of the diet. These plants might be grown in growth chambers that could range from 0. Alternatively, direct solar light might be concentrated and delivered to the inside of the vehicle to sustain plant growth. Various challenges and concepts for growing plants on a Mars fly by missions will be presented. His current research interests include study for hybrid bio-regenerative life support approaches in long-duration autonomous space missions and role of Human Factor as a major control element for such systems functional stability.

He joined Space Studies in He earned his Ph. Prolonged stays in space environments expose human subjects to multiple stressors with different effects and consequences for human physiology and psychological conditions. Inspiration Mars private initiative currently is proposing to send a two-person crew on a round trip flyby mission to Mars in Adding a human component to a Mars flyby exploratory by nature mission offers unique opportunities for exposure astronauts to the deep space environments.

At the same time physiological limitations for human subjects and life support technology as well as human factors science aspects of such a mission are not clear yet. His current research focuses on human health effects of space flight and the exploration of the Moon and Mars.

Jon has investigated the toxicity, reactivity, and abrasiveness of Apollo lunar dust specimens, and developed novel brick-like regolith biocomposite technologies made from lunar dust simulants. Jon has also developed and tested life science hardware and experiments that flew aboard the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station.

He has performed experiment operations aboard the NASA C9B parabolic aircraft, been a test subject in hypergravity experiments aboard the centrifuge facilities at NASA Ames, and has conducted field astrobiology research in desert and polar regions.

Jon is a alumnus of the Space Studies M. Future long duration human exploration of the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to the deleterious effects of spaceflight. Although artificial gravity has been proposed as a human health countermeasure for reduced-gravity environments, it is unclear what g level, duration, and frequency ofexposures is optimal for successful application of artificial gravity in space.

This presentation highlighted results from recent human experiments aboard centrifuges at NASA Ames that investigated subject familiarization to centrifugation, as well as the effect that artificial gravity has on the cardiovascular system. Experiences of being an artificial gravity test subject were also shared. Mike's research focuses on the study of asteroids in order to better understand the formation and early evolution of the Solar System.

Spacecraft flybys of planets have initiated virtually every planetary exploration project, from the first lunar flyby by the USSR's Luna 1 in January and Luna 3 in October which imaged the moon's farside for the first time through the upcoming July 14, flyby of the Pluto system by the New Horizons spacecraft. Inspiration Mars has proposed sending a two-person crew on a round trip flyby mission to Mars. Adding a human component to a Mars flyby mission offers unique opportunities and limitations the science aspects of such a mission.

This talk will focus on an assessment of the Mars-related science that could be incorporated into the proposed mission. Mars Science during a Human Flyby Mission. April 15, Lunar Dust: His current research focuses on human health risks associated with space exploration, and the search for life on Mars.

Jon has investigated the toxicity of Lunar Dust, and developed and tested life science hardware and experiments for Space Shuttle missions and the International Space Station. The fine-grained nature of the lunar surface is both a concern and an opportunity for future lunar surface operations. Our research on lunar dust has focused on the biological concerns that relate to astronaut exposure to lunar dust, as well as the development of regolith biocomposite technology.

This presentation will highlight results from recent experimental investigations that have characterized lunar dust skin abrasivity, chemical reactivity, and pulmonary toxicity, and will feature examples of concrete-like materials made of lunar dust simulants. Sykes is CEO and Director of the Planetary Science Institute, a non-profit corporation dedicated to the exploration of the solar system for more than 40 years. Mark began his science career as an undergraduate at the University of Oregon, studying photometric and polarimetric lightcurves of eclipsing stellar binaries - particularly the first black-hole system, Cygnus X As a graduate student at the University of Oregon, he discovered cometary dust trails using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and engaged in ground-based studies of asteroids in the thermal infrared.

Sykes chairs the NASA Small Bodies Assessment Group, which provides science input for the planning and prioritization of the exploration of asteroids and comets. Near-Earth objects are viewed primarily as hazards. One is noted for killing the dinosaurs.

This February, another much smaller object exploded over the Siberian city of Chelyabinsk in Russia, injuring more than people.

Recognizing the potential damage from another Siberian airburst over Tunguska in , Congress modified their mandate in to include objects down to meters in diameter.

However, asteroids represent more than just threats, they represent the potential to expand human presence and economy beyond Earth. A non-profit company says it will raise hundreds of millions in donations to survey NEOs to reduce the hazard threat. Private companies have started up with the goal of mining asteroids and turning a profit. Is this the Dawn of a new space age? Or business as usual? Adjunct Faculty, Webster University. In , she decided to pursue a long term goal of pursuing a Ph.

This research relied on a critical analysis of space law and policy to elucidate newly emerging trends. In , while still a graduate student, Weeks began teaching courses and attending and presenting at space conferences. Weeks has presented and published a variety of papers before the international space community via the International Astronautical Federation Congresses, and was elected into the International Institute of Space Law in She speaks on topics related to space law and newly emerging trends for outer space development to space organizations, K groups, university clubs and organizations, companies, and creates space themed courses for social and behavioral sciences students.

Weeks will discuss recent U. February 11, Space Resources Utilization: Living off the Land Dr. He is also the president of The Space Resources Roundtable, an organization focused on bringing the space exploration community, the financial sector, and the mining and minerals industries to discuss issues related to lunar, asteroidal, and planetary resources. Just as our ancestors for centuries relied on the use of local resources to explore every corner of our planet, so the utilization of space resources will enable the affordable establishment of extraterrestrial exploration and operations by minimizing the materials carried from Earth.

The search and use of resources to produce materials, propellants, energy, and basic consumables for life support on the Moon, asteroids, and other planets may very well become one of the main drivers for continuing our exploration of space. Living off the Land. Asteroid was named Gaffey in recognition of his contribution to the field.

The spacecraft was launched in September and went into orbit around the large main belt asteroid 4 Vesta in July , staying in orbit until September , before departing for a rendezvous with asteroid 1 Ceres in mid During the more than a year in orbit, the DAWN spacecraft imaged the surface at high resolution and in many colors to map surface units.

Additionally visible and near-infra spectra were obtained of nearly the entire surface to assess surface mineralogy, and gamma ray spectra were obtained to map elemental composition of the surface.

Although Vesta had been the most intensely investigated asteroid prior to the DAWN mission, many surprises awaited the science team once data began to be returned. One major goal of the mission was to test this asteroid as the parent body of the most common type of igneous meteorites, the HEDs. Confirming such a link would allow the detailed chemical and chronological data from the HED to be used to outline the geologic history of this largest igneous body in the asteroid belt.

Moscow State University, Is international cooperation essential for the humankind movement into the Universe? What may be the goals of space exploration as seen by contemporary science fiction writers today, in the beginning of the 21st century?

These questions will be approached from the perspective of comparative culture research on the basis of Russian and American new trends in literature and film. Models of Space Future in Science Fiction of April 30, National Security Space Strategy: A Path to Success in a Changed Environment. Chief of Staff of the Air Force. He is responsible for providing policy advice and support to the Secretary of Defense and other senior Department of Defense leaders by formulating, recommending, integrating, and implementing policies and strategies to improve United States space capabilities.

His career has included numerous satellite operations and staff positions in Air Force Space Command and the National Reconnaissance Office. The Colonel commanded a space operations squadron of over military, civilian, and industry personnel. Space capabilities provide the United States and our allies unprecedented advantages in national decision-making, military operations, homeland security, economic strength, and scientific discovery.

Space systems provide unfettered global access, enable rapid response to global challenges, and are vital to monitoring strategic and military developments. Space systems allow people and governments around the world to see with clarity, communicate with certainty, navigate with accuracy, and operate with assurance. An evolving strategic environment increasingly challenges U. Space, a domain that no nation owns but on which all rely, is becoming increasingly congested, contested, and competitive.

This presentation will discuss the National Security Space Strategy and the path it charts for success in this changing environment. The speaker will address how the strategy maintains and enhances the advantages derived from space through the following approaches:. National Security Space Strategy: Experience - Electro-optical sensor manufacturing and operations, system engineering, sensor calibration, quality assurance, and project management.

He is responsible for cost, benefit, and performance analysis for all things NextGen.. Post has 30 years of experience in aerospace, defense, and civil aviation. Post is an instrument-rated pilot. The Federal Aviation Administration and its partners in the aviation industry are engaged in an unprecedented effort to modernize air transportation.

The Next Generation Air Transportation System, or NextGen, will replace outmoded terrestrial navigation and surveillance systems, and analog voice communications, with modern, space-based digital technologies, thereby increasing operating efficiencies, enhancing safety, and improving environmental performance. After graduating with his B.

As an example, at the daily level, team members deliberate such things as missed satellite contacts for POES and product impacts due to maneuvers for GOES, while at the long-term level, the changes in requirements that compel technological advances for the GOES and POES programs are considered. February 24, Space Habitats: From the time he saw his first satellite at age five — Explorer 3 in July -- Marc grew up believing that the Space Program was the story of his life.

Marc studied Architecture, developing notions for habitats, bases, settlements, and colonies off the Earth. Starting out as a facility architect at NASA Ames, Marc designed projects for wind tunnels, life science labs, and aircraft support buildings.

There, he developed the triangular-tetrahedral space station concept, the nodes and cupola US Patent 4, , , of which went into the Space Station Freedom and later the ISS configuration. Marc facilitated the Human Exploration Demonstration Project: This experience gave him a deep insight into the working of the NASA institution and its internal relations.

Presently, Marc is starting a business, Astrotecture, for the professional practice of Space Architecture. This presentation offers a common frame of reference for understanding full scale mockups and simulators for human spacecraft. Mockups and Simulators have a range of objectives and purposes, including: These purposes are not mutually exclusive, but can co-exist or overlap in the same mockup or simulator.

After the successful completion of the mission, Dr. The ST-5 mission consisted of three micro-sat satellites integrated into a single suite. The ICESat-2 mission will provide multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance. It will also provide topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. ATLAS is a laser altimeter, utilizing a measurement technique known as photon counting, which is designed to measure ice-sheet topography and associated temporal changes.

This presentation will focus on the role of ICESat-2 mission as we monitor the changes in the global cryosphere and the generation and subsequent distribution of data products to the user community. An overview of the mission will also be presented. He has more than 25 years of engineering and functional and program management experience in aerospace domain. Satellite Communications for Development in the Arctic Dr. Hudson has planned and evaluated communication projects in Alaska, northern Canada, and more than 50 developing countries and emerging economies in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and the South Pacific.

She has consulted for the private sector, government agencies, consumer and indigenous organizations, and international organizations. She has written many articles and several books, and has presented numerous conference papers and as well as expert testimony on communications policy issues such as universal service and access, incentives for investing in information infrastructure, restructuring of the telecommunications sector, and telecommunications planning for socio-economic development.

She has been a member of Advisory Committees of the U. This presentation will examine the role of satellites in linking isolated communities in the Arctic, particularly in Alaska, with examples also from Northern Canada and Greenland.

It will include a review of telemedicine, distance education, e-commerce, e-government, and indigenous cultural applications. Also covered will be current projects in Alaska funded by Stimulus grants from the U.

Department of Commerce and the Rural Utilities Service. Current policy issues including technology trends, expansion of broadband, and universal service fund support for rural areas will also be addressed. From Northern Village to Global Village: Satellite Communications for Development in the Arctic.

January 18, The Changing Maritime Arctic: During he was chair and U. Brigham was a career U. Coast Guard officer from , retiring with the rank of Captain.

He is a graduate of the U. Coast Guard Academy, the U. The Changing Maritime Arctic: Space Needs for Future Marine Operations. October 25, Space Policy Today Dr. Space tourism, aviation and rocket history per his book, The Wright Stuff: October 11, National Security Space: Dr Hays holds a Ph. Recent military operations in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Kosovo indicate space capabilities have become a foundational enabler of most U.

Worldwide, there is growing recognition and focus on the broad and ubiquitous contributions space capabilities make to global prosperity and security. The Space Commission Report found that because U. National Space Policy released in October stated: Freedom of action in space is as important to the United States as air power and sea power. He is married and has four children. Mendell has a B. His scientific research focus is remote sensing of planetary surfaces, particularly specializing in thermal emission radiometry and spectroscopy of the Moon.

Since , his activities in NASA have focused on planning and advocacy of human exploration of the solar system, especially on the establishment of a permanent human base on the Moon. His interests lay as much with policy issues as with technical solutions. He acts as a liaison between the scientific community and the Program responsible for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration. From Dream to Reality He belongs to several professional scientific and engineering societies.

He has been editor for nine technical volumes and has published over 40 articles in professional journals and conference proceedings. He is also author of numerous abstracts and short papers presented at technical conferences.

On February 1, , the federal budget for Fiscal Year was released. NASA received an increase, unlike almost any other federal agency. At the same time, the budget revealed that the Constellation Program would be cancelled and that NASA would look to private sector providers for transportation of cargo, and eventually crew members, to the International Space Station. The Constellation Program had included a human return to the Moon by the year , and the program plans called for a permanent surface facility capable of supporting human explorers.

The policy direction has polarized the U. The new policy has been described both as the death knell of human space exploration and as the only hope to save human space exploration. Some members of Congress have threatened legal action based on the current law regarding appropriation of funds to NASA, which states that Constellation cannot be cancelled without prior consultation with Congress. As might be expected, some of the reaction is directly related to losses or gains of jobs in districts associated with NASA facilities.

However, various statements show high emotional content, suggesting that personal belief systems have been challenged. Meanwhile, many details of the new policy are not yet clear; and some aspects seem to be shifting in response to political reaction. My own work has had a central theme of lunar exploration and development, but I have also come to believe that human exploration will never be more than a political sideshow until a significant economic sector can be created in space off of the Earth.

The views presented will be my own and in no way reflect official policies of the NASA. April 19, Mars Direct: Humans to the Red Planet within a Decade Dr. Robert Zubrin President, Pioneer Astronautics.

He is the inventor of several unique concepts for space propulsion and exploration, the author of over published technical and non-technical papers in the field, as well the non-fiction books 'The Case for Mars: Most recently, he founded the Mars Society; an international organization dedicated to furthering the exploration and settlement of Mars by both public and private means. In that capacity, he personally led the construction and operation of a human Mars exploration training station on Devon Island, an uninhabited island in the Canadian Arctic miles form the North Pole.

Prior to his work in astronautics, Dr. Zubrin was employed in areas of thermonuclear fusion research, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, and as a high school science teacher. In July , on the 20th anniversary of the Apollo Moon landing, the first President Bush called for America to renew its pioneering push into space with the establishment of a permanent Lunar base and a series of human missions to Mars.

While many have said that such an endeavor would be excessively costly and take many decades, a small team at Martin Marietta drew up a daring plan that could sharply cut costs and send a group of American astronauts to the Red Planet within ten years. Can Americans reach the Red Planet in our time? Humans to the Red Planet within a Decade. He received a Ph. In his free time, Chris likes to run, ski, read, and travel to other countries. Current plans call for the first human missions to Mars to be launched around The recently completed "Mars Design Reference Mission 5.

NASA is beginning long-range development on key technologies needed for these missions because it will take many years for them to reach maturity. The ISS and the lunar outpost will be used as test beds for these technologies to reduce risk and prepare for human exploration of Mars. Dr Lee is internationally recognized for his efforts to advance the human exploration of Mars, in particular via its moons Phobos and Deimos.

As with all expeditions, its success will depend on planning. The first steps towards a human journey to the Red Planet are already underway, as we explore extreme environments on Earth and prepare for new journeys to the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and the moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. Dr Pascal Lee will discuss progress being made around the world, from the Arctic to Antarctica, to achieve these milestones. He will examine in turn the what, why, when, who, and how of a human mission to Mars.

Extravehicular activity is one of the most critical areas for planetary exploration. On Mars, due to gravity conditions, dust contamination and a specific thermal scenario, a special kind of suit is required to protect the astronauts. Since the Department of Space Studies at UND has been researching in the area of planetary space suit systems and developed the NDX-1 a Mars suit demonstrator which was tested on Earth under analog conditions.

As a result of these studies new developments are taking place and a series of design improvements have been done to prepare a suit that can cope with the Mars conditions. Since a space suit is just part of the extravehicular system, an integrated design of the mission contemplating all different aspects of the tasks to accomplish, is required.

A new NASA grant is allowing the Department of Space Studies to develop a complete minimal mission scenario including inflatable habitat, airlocks, rovers and space suit, to attempt to address all the different problems related to a human mission to Mars. Extravehicular Activities for Mars Exploration. A mission to Mars and return to Earth will take more than two years, possibly a lot more. The travelers will be exposed to microgravity, radiation, and sensory deprivation, and other space phenomena in amounts which have never been experienced or tested before.

For example, the longest stay in space microgravity on board the Russian space station Mir performed by Russian cosmonaut-physician Valery Polyakov was Earth days. Rygalov will address questions such how can astronauts survive this long duration trip in hostile environments of space? How can they maintain their health for an acceptable level of performance? What are those natural mechanisms which help people to survive in extreme environments?

Rygalov also will discuss available techniques and current research trends in human factors in space. In the last year or two, its status had become even more questionable.

All are welcome to attend. February 1, The Planet Mars Dr. The planet Mars has been long identified as a target for human space missions and possible human settlements. Since the discovery of possible — but very controversial — microbial fossils in the Martian meteorite ALH , a fleet of unmanned spacecraft from several nations have visited the Red Planet. Although many questions remain to be resolved, we now know a great deal more about Mars than we did in when NASA, at the request of the President, outlined a scenario for a manned Mars mission.

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