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What is muscular dystrophy?
The infliction of opportunity costs through non-monopolistic competition does not by itself constitute aggression. Expression is only aggression if it involves deception that intentionally or negligently causes actual harm or serious risk thereof, for example by yelling "fire! Non-deceptive incitement to aggression is not itself aggression. Injustice is unminimized, unreversed, or unpunished aggression.
The minimization of coercion can itself justify a minimal amount of coercion. Coercion should be reversed by payment of damages or, if possible, reparation of the original property or access rights to the coerced persons. Serious coercion should be punished by loss of freedom, personal interaction, and even life. Thus justice can also be defined as the most liberty for the most persons. Freedom is significant volition: The freedoms of two persons can be in complete conflict, but their liberties by definition cannot.
The state should allow the incorporation of fictitious persons for commercial purposes, with limited liability and equal ownership and control for each shareholder, as long as at least one shareholder agrees to unlimited liability. Thus corporations should be an elaborate form of limited partnership, where at least one full partner retains full personal liability for the corporation's debts.
Artificial monopoly should only be regulated to the extent it is anti-competitive. An important example of anti-competitive monopoly is when all the firms in an industry or region refuse to do commerce with employees or customers of a certain race.
Since the market cannot efficiently regulate natural monopolies, the state should do so. The Eightfold Path is a prescription by Buddha of a middle path said to lie between asceticism and hedonism and said to end the suffering caused by desire. The Golden Rule's ethical value of reciprocity does not satisfy the axiological criteria of maximality and compatibility and so cannot by itself be a satisfactory system of ethics.
However, when applied to meta-ethics it becomes the axiological criterion of universality, similar to Kant's categorical imperative.
Of the Ten Commandments, the first four indicate an insecure god afraid of losing his authority. The remaining three commandments should in a free society only have the force of good advice.
Evil is either of sadism or injustice. Sadism is any person's practice of taking pleasure in another being's unhappiness as an end in itself. Humans are not by nature necessarily sadistic or unjust, but they are, like all known organisms, naturally self-interested. Like being alive, being self-interested is almost always a necessary cause of being unjust, but that makes neither life nor self-interest necessarily evil. Humans, like all known social organisms, are naturally cooperative.
Humans are not by nature necessarily evil, but their natural self-interest gives them a natural capacity for evil. In their natural social environment of family and community, humans tend naturally to be more good than evil, and to cooperate for mutual benefit. Love is strong affection and devotion. Romantic love is deep and intimate affection and devotion involving sensual passion, reproductive desire, and mutual unity of interest.
Each human should seek a mate with whom he or she has mutual sensual attraction, shared values, and compatible temperament. Humans should seek a mate by applying a balance of these three criteria, and by balancing short-term pleasure and convenience against long-term happiness. Romantic love is worth making efforts and taking risks, and finding it thus requires wisdom and fortitude.
If circumstances preclude finding it, then living happily without it also requires wisdom and fortitude. Humans should honor the memories of their ancestors. Humans should respect and repay the devotion of their parents. Human siblings and cousins should provide each other fellowship and aid.
Humans should have as many children as they can provide with a materially and emotionally sound upbringing. Humans should instill in their children personal virtues and extropian and human values. Fellowship is the enjoyment of human company through the sharing of ideas, humor, competition, industry, or fun.
Industry is economic, intellectual, or artistic production. Humans should practice industry to provide for their material well-being and to satisfy their appetite for learning and feeling useful.
Humans should throughout their lives try to improve their understanding of the foundations and frontiers of human knowledge. Humans should choose careers that balance their personal interests and temperament with occupations of high or increasing economic productivity. Misfortune inflicted by persons should be rebelled against. The cost of rebellion should be weighed against not just the direct benefits but also the opportunity costs to other persons of not rebelling.
Natural misfortune exists for the same reason that natural fortune exists: Misfortune inflicted by nature should not be compounded by useless resentment. The misfortunate should seek to evoke in others not co-misery but empathy and appreciation for relative fortune. The unrealized possibility of even worse misfortune should not make the misfortunate happy, but it should make them less unhappy and help them avoid compounding unhappiness. Suicide should only be considered as an alternative to unavoidable and terminal physiological torment.
Misfortune is any harm one experiences, other than injustice, that can be seen as beyond one's control. Some of the dimensions of misfortune are: Humans should seek the maximum pleasure for themselves and other beings that is consistent with their fundamental human and personal values. Pleasure, even if natural, should not itself be a fundamental human value, for several reasons.
Fairness is the most obligatory virtue, for two reasons. First, much of fairness consists in practicing justice , which is itself obligatory. Second, fairness derives directly from the meta-ethical values of universality and impartiality, as is reflected in the Golden Rule. For this reason, fairness is like wisdom a maximal virtue: Kindness is the most sublime of the virtues. Kindness includes being in a good mood and assuming in others the best motive that is consistent with available evidence.
The virtue of kindness makes humans want to help their fellow humans, especially those in need. A common view is that the best form of kindness is charity. Charity is the sharing of material wealth with the needy. But throughout history the greatest improvements in human well-being have come not from charity but from justice and knowledge. Humanity's surplus of injustice, superstition , and ignorance is a far bigger problem than its deficit of charity.
Beauty is the quality of being pleasing to apprehend with the senses or contemplate with the mind. Starting in the latter decades of the s there was in Western culture an inordinate emphasis on authenticity. People didn't ask if the food at a restaurant tastes good; they asked if it is authentic. Reviewers needed to know an author's life story before mustering an opinion on her novel. Ideas were judged less on their merits than on the resume of their advocate. People seemed not confident enough in their value judgments, and excessively afraid of feeling duped in any way.
This was perhaps a consequence of the extreme relativism that developed as a reaction to the collapse in the s of traditional absolutes and hierarchies concerning religion, ethnicity, and gender.
Deconstruction ism and Critical Theory are two examples of this extreme relativism. Intuitionism rejects the validity of the laws of the excluded middle and of double-negation, and thus any reductio ad absurdam argument. Intuitionism rejects the use of truth tables for testing the validity of propositions, because truth tables assume one can exclude "middle" possibilities of neither truth nor falsity. A system is weakly complete if every valid wff is a theorem.
A system is strongly complete if the addition as an axiom of any wff not already a theorem would make the system inconsistent. An axiom or transformation rule of a system is independent if it cannot be derived from the remainder of the system's axiomatization.
The propositional calculus is decidable, consistent and strongly complete, and each of its axioms and transformation rules are independent. The first-order predicate calculus is undecidable, consistent and at least weakly complete. Godel's 1st Incompleteness Theorem states that all consistent systems of number theory include undecidable propositions. Godel's 2nd Incompleteness Theorem states that no consistent system of number theory can prove its own consistency.
Membership Î is a formally undefined relation in set theory that can intuitively be understood as "being an element of", and is such that a given object either is or isn't a member of a given set.
Relations and functions can be defined as sets of ordered pairs, and thus can be defined strictly within set theory. The Babylonian sexagesimal base numeric system is the basis of the modern measures of time and angles. The continuum hypothesis is that there is no set with cardinality greater than the set of natural numbers but less than the set of its subsets.
The continuum hypothesis can be neither proved nor disproved by the axioms of ZFC. These constants define natural units of duration, distance, mass, and electric charge. How can Quantum Theory and Relativity be reconciled? Is Quantum Theory correct in requiring either anti-relativistic faster-than-light influence or time-reversed causality?
How do black holes destroy information other than that of mass, charge, angular momentum, and temperature that Quantum Theory says must be preserved? How does sound cause in liquids the generation of small but intense bursts of light and heat known as sonoluminescence? What causes high-temperature superconductivity?
Centripetal Force is any force on a body toward the axis of its angular motion. Centrifugal Force is the inertia-induced apparent force on a body away from the axis of its angular motion. A bucket spun around an axis by a rope connecting it to that axis experiences centripetal force from the rope. Water in the bucket is held in place by an opposing centrifugal force which is actually just the inertia of the water trying to keep the water going in a straight tangent line.
Special Relativity is the physics of inertial frames. Latent heat is the heat a substance must lose, without changing temperature, in order to change phase from gas to liquid or liquid to solid.
Vaporization is the change from liquid to gas due to addition of heat but without necessarily changing temperature. Freezing is the change from liquid to solid due to removal of heat but without necessarily changing temperature. Evaporation is the change from liquid to gas due to the escape of the liquid's more energetic molecules through its surface shared with an unsaturated gas. Light is electromagnetic radiation: Light defines the speed at which everything moves through space-time.
Atoms such as iron are permanent magnetic dipoles. Quanta have complementary properties that cannot be observed or measured simultaneously. The weak force is chiral: This is strong evidence that there must be an odd number of space-like dimensions, since chirality cannot exist in an even number of space-like dimensions.
Reflection along an even number of axes is equivalent to rotation, and invariance under rotation is a fundamental symmetry in nature. Bohr's Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory is that reality should not be assumed to have properties that exist independently of their being measured. Einstein's hidden variables hypothesis is that future physical theories will reveal that the fundamental properties of reality have values that are independent of their being measured.
Everett's many worlds hypothesis is that at each measurement or observation event the universe branches into a separate universe for each possible outcome of the event. The hidden variables hypothesis is not supported by available evidence. The many worlds hypothesis is unfalsifiable, unverifiable, and therefor meaningless. Quantum indeterminacy is on such a small scale that it is unlikely to affect macroscopic processes such as volition in the brain.
However, quantum indeterminacy does in principle make strong free will possible. At the same time, too much indeterminacy would threaten to undermine the ethically more important property of weak free will. If quantum indeterminacy did not exist i. The positions of the particles in any volume could in principle be measured to arbitrary precision, extracting arbitrary amounts of information. Similarly, the positions of the particles could in principle be adjusted to arbitrary precision, thus storing arbitrary amounts of information.
Completely faithful and precise simulations of actual physical subsystems would be impossible, because infinite amounts of information would be required to accurately specify the positions of particles. Quantum indeterminacy thus seems consistent with the logical possibility that the universe is in fact a simulation running on some computational substrate whose random number generator would constitute the ultimate hidden variable.
Of course, since this possibility is probably unverifiable, parsimony requires that it be rejected pending other evidence. Inflation explains why the universe is isotropic, by allowing opposite ends of the observable universe to have once been in causal contact, even though today they are 20 Gly apart.
Inflation also explains why the observable universe appears flat. The observable universe is about billion light-years in radius. At the limits of our observation are the Big Bang singularity for the time-like dimension and just-now-visible parts of the universe for the space-like dimensions.
In about 40, years, Voyager 2 will come within about 1. Pioneer 11is headed toward the constellation of Aquila The Eagle , Northwest of the constellation of Sagittarius. Pioneer 11 may pass near one of the stars in the constellation in about 4 million years.
The brain is the part of the vertebrate nervous system responsible for regulating and controlling bodily activities, including autonomic functions, sensation, movement, and cognition. The brain stem controls most autonomic functions and is involved in emotional and reproductive behavior. The cerebellum controls voluntary muscular activities. The cerebrum is responsible for sensation, volition, and cognition. All human cognitive functions seem to consist ultimately in the activation and modulation of synaptic connections in the cerebrum.
The human cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres, one of which is dominant in each individual. The dominant hemisphere is responsible for language, mathematics, and handedness. The other hemisphere is responsible for face recognition and emotional, spatial, and musical processing.
The frontal lobes of the cerebrum are responsible for attention, volition, planning, and conscience. The motor cortex of each frontal lobe controls the voluntary muscles of the body's opposite side. The somatosensory cortex of each parietal lobe receives and integrates input from mechanoreceptors and thermoreceptors on the body's opposite side. The visual cortex in each occipital lobe processes input from the opposing half of each eye's visual field, providing e.
The auditory cortex in each temporal lobe processes auditory input from both sides of the body, and has areas for the comprehension and production of language.
The non-dominant temporal lobe analyzes the emotional content of faces. Immediate memory seems to be stored in the frontal lobes. Short-term memory is processed by the hippocampus.
Episodic long-term memory seems to be stored in the temporal lobes, whereas the parietal lobes seem responsible for general long-term memory. Long-term memories seem not to be stored at particular points in the brain, but rather in diffuse associative networks. How are memories created, stored, recalled, and forgotten? How does the brain understand and generate language? How does the brain perform learning and reasoning? What happens in the brain as it makes a decision?
How does the brain generate and process emotions? How does the brain control attention? What is the neurophysiological purpose, if any, of sleeping and dreaming? Evolution is not simply any change in an entity. Individual organisms develop, not evolve.
Evolution does not inevitably cause "progress" toward "higher" forms. Evolution can remove features such as eyes and limbs as well as add them. Evolution is not constrained to creating increasing complexity. However, as an ecosystem develops, extremes of complexity can become more likely due to accumulation of complicating changes in some lineages.
Natural selection acts on individual organisms, and not on groups or species of organisms. Natural selection favors variations that increase a genotype's inclusive fitness. Natural selection for maximum inclusive fitness can lead some individuals to forego reproduction in order to help relatives reproduce. It can lead other individuals to compete with parents or siblings, cheat on mates, or commit infanticide against a mate's unrelated offspring. The methane, ammonia, water, and hydrogen sulfide on the early Earth would have been readily combined by lightning, heat, or ultraviolet radiation into organic molecules like amino acids, sugars, and nucleic acids.
Clays or other mineral surfaces may have served as catalysts or concentrators for polymerization of these organic molecules. Nucleotide phosphates could have spontaneously assembled into polynucleotides, which then would be templates for further such assembly.
Errors in copying could have led to a population of various replicating polynucleotides. Some polynucleotides could have weakly but selectively bonded with particular amino acids to construct various proteins. Any polynucleotide whose associated protein helped catalyze that polynucleotide's assembly would have preferentially reproduced.
Mutually catalyzing cycles of protein synthesis could have caused the evolution of enzymes. Cells may have arisen as proteinoid microspheres forming spontaneously and helping maintain concentrations of proteins or enzymes which themselves made microsphere formation more likely.
Cell division and reproduction may have developed from the tendency of some microspheres to rupture perhaps after some form of growth into two or more spheres.
Natural selection would favor those resulting spheres that retained a complement of nucleic acids, proteins, and enzymes sufficient to continue the sphere's cyclical catalysis, which would at some point be considered the metabolism of a spherical cell. The earliest bacteria were chemotrophs deriving energy from inorganic chemicals in their environment, but around 3.
The earliest first form of photosynthesis split hydrogen sulfide to produce ATP and waste sulfure. Genetic evidence indicates that many taxa originated earlier than the fossil record suggests. Chimps are more closely related to humans than to gorillas. Similarly, chimps and gorillas are more closely related to humans than to orangutans. Thus the clade Pongidae is paraphyletic. How did Homo sapiens acquire language? This question, too, will likely never have a fully satisfying answer, as the fossil record tells even less about the development of language than it does about the development of intelligence.
Just as sociality was crucial to the evolution of intelligence in animals, it probably also created selective pressure for the development of language skills. A variety of particular factors and stages have been proposed. Production is the transformation of economic resources into goods. Economic resources are any natural resources , human resources, or capital resources that are useful for production. Capital is any product that is has utility for production.
Human resources are the labor, skills, and knowledge of persons. Exchange is the trading of goods for money or for other goods. A market is any mechanism for buyers and sellers to exchange goods.
A free market is a market in which buyers and sellers are generally free to decide what to exchange and under what terms. Money is anything generally accepted as a medium of exchange and thus useful for storing or measuring economic value. The price of a good is the amount of economic value that must be exchanged to acquire it.
Demand is willingness and ability to buy. Supply is availability and proffer for sale. The scarcity of a good is the excess of its demand over its supply, and in a free market is measured by price.
Consumption is any use of goods that subtracts from wealth without adding to production. Wealth is the economic value of what one owns minus what one owes. Income is change in net wealth plus the value of goods consumed. Producers and consumers have complete information about the prices and quality of all goods available or demanded in the market.
Markets for particular kinds of goods are not dominated by a relatively few sellers or buyers. Sellers are able to exclude potential buyers from consuming the sellers' goods without buying them. Under perfect competition, markets tend toward equilibrium. Mathematical proof has been given of the theoretical existence of at least one set of prices that will clear all markets simultaneously. Free trade benefits all parties, even those absolutely more efficient than others.
Routine consensual transactions are positive sum, because if either party suffered a loss then she would decline to make the transaction routine. Free markets are the most efficient way to determine the allocation of economic resources and the distribution of goods.
The decentralized mechanism of free market pricing is able to ration goods and resources more efficiently than could any central planning agency. This is because the pricing system transmits information about supply and demand more efficiently than could any planning agency. The pricing system forces economic actors to reveal their demand, and forces firms to supply only what is demanded.
Natural resources over time become less costly and thus less scarce. Population growth leads to increased specialization, increased productivity, increased living standards, and a cleaner environment. Marxism is the belief in the labor theory of value and its consequent conclusion that any profits by private owners of capital are unjustified and exploitive.
The labor theory of value ignores the fact that capital contributes to value by making labor more productive. Gross domestic product is the market value of the total production in a year of all the factors of production located in a nation. Gross national product is the total production in a year of all the factors of production owned by a nation. Recession is any decrease in gross domestic product that lasts at least six months.
Growth is any increase in gross domestic product. Growth is caused by increases in any or all of: How can real as opposed to nominal production and productivity be accurately measured over the long term? Knowledge and technology can create qualitative improvements in goods and services that confound historical comparisons of real production. Unemployment is the state of unsuccessfully seeking to sell labor. Frictional unemployment is the amount of short-term unemployment caused by the process of matching jobs with job-seekers.
Structural unemployment is the amount of long-term unemployment caused by long-term changes in the mix of job skills demanded by employers. The natural rate of unemployment is the sum of the frictional and structural unemployment rates. The mos t likely explanation is some kind of ratchet effect that keeps wages from falling when demand for labor decreases, so that unemployment substitutes for wage cuts.
There are perhaps sociological reasons why employers and employees are reluctant to see wages cut. Also, minimum wage laws probably cause some of the unemployment of low-productivity workers. A multiplier is the ratio of the increase in the equilibrium level of aggregate output to the independent increase in some input. The multiplier for an increase or decrease in a balanced government budget is 1.
The money supply is the amount of money in circulation, usually measured as M1 or M2. M1 is all currency held outside banks plus all deposits against which a check may be written. M2 is M1 plus all accounts which are easily convertible into currency, such as savings and money market accounts. The velocity of money is the ratio of nominal GDP to the money supply. A central bank is the institution in a nation that creates currency, regulates the money supply, and stabilizes the banking system.
The required reserve ratio is the fraction of any bank's deposits that must be held at the nation's central bank. Banks are able to create money by making loans, but only if they have reserves in excess of the required reserve ratio.
The money multiplier is the ratio of increase in money supply to increase in reserves. The law of diminishing returns states that applying additional units of a production factor out of proportion to other production factors will eventually yield smaller increases in production.
Additional capital increases the productivity of labor, which increases the demand for labor, which increases the price of labor wages. The equilibrium price of and return to each production factor is equal to its productivity as measured by marginal revenue product. Thus the standard of living for laborers is ultimately determined by the productivity of labor.
The short run is the time scale on which there is a fixed scale of production and no entry or exit of firms from the market. The long run is the time scale on which firms can enter or exit markets and scale production as they choose.
The productivity of a production factor is the amount of its output per unit input. The marginal revenue product of a variable production factor is the additional revenue earned by employing an additional unit of that factor. Investment is the creation of new capital. Depreciation is the decline in an asset's value over time, due usually to accumulated use or obsolescence.
Speculation is the buying and selling of goods, and especially factors of production, with the intent of profiting from their changing market value over time. Speculation performs the socially useful function of targeting investment to the production factors that are most productive. Even short-term speculation performs this role, because short-term speculators must determine the net present value as it will be perceived in the near future, which recursively depends on the long-term net present value.
Pareto optimality is the condition that obtains when no person can be made more happy without making some person less happy. The labor supply in an economy like America's is inelastic, in that the labor supply does not change much when wages change. Thus payroll taxes levied on employers are actually paid by employees, because they will generally still work for wages lowered by the tax.
If the labor supply were elastic, then employers would have to raise wages by the amount of the tax in order to keep their labor supply. Minimum wage laws tend to increase unemployment among low-wage earners by over-pricing their labor and thus decreasing the demand for it.
The social benefit of a minimum wage is financed through a hidden and production-distorting tax that falls on only certain goods and services rather than on the general tax base. Unions with monopolistic control over the labor supply in a particular industry enforce artificially high wages that lead to suboptimal levels of production and employment. Rent control prevents the supply of housing from expanding to meet the demand, and transfers income from those unlucky enough to be landlords to those lucky enough to have a n increasingly scarce lease.
In theory this third dimension is independent of the first two, but in practice it correlates imperfectly with the personal liberty vs.
The two sorts of enfranchisement for which the correlation is weakest are fetal status see Pro-Choice and citizenship. Favoring enfranchisement of non-citizens implies support for free trade, liberal immigration, foreign aid, human rights abroad, and humanitarian interventionism as opposed to isolationism or imperialism. Foreign intervention has historically been imperialist rather than humanitarian, and so doves have usually been progressives, and hawks have usually been reactionaries.
Thus being "pro-choice" on abortion is as disingenuous as being "pro-choice" on slave-owning. The position actually being advocated is the non-personhood of fetuses and slaves, respectively. But "No personhood for fetuses" is not a very fun bumper sticker, and so opponents of fetal personhood choose to obscure the real issue. The following history of humanity will supplement traditional political history who did what with technological, intellectual, economic, and military history how and why things were done.
Modern humans spread rapidly from their origins in E. Africa and SW Asia. Modern humans reached Australia from 60 to 40 Kya, and apparently caused the extinction of much megafauna there, such as the rhino-sized marsupial herbivore Diprotodon. As in Australia, megafauna that had not coevolved with hominids soon became extinct when humans arrived. European humans retreated to southern European refugia during the last glacial maximum Wurm IV around 17 Kya. The end of the last ice age led to a recolonization of Europe around 13 Kya.
The penultimate great biological advance on Earth was the evolution of hominid intelligence. This led directly to the hominids' first great technological revolution at the beginning of the Paleolithic Age by 2 Mya: Tools and fire granted to hominids a mastery over predators, prey, and the elements that was literally unimaginable to other primates.
The second technological revolution was also the most recent great biological advance on Earth: The development of language, watercraft, and weaving combined to allow early modern humans from Africa and SW Asia to master climates and locales throughout the world.
The third revolution was the development of agriculture at the beginning of the Neolithic Age about 10 Kya. The resulting specialization led to the advanced development of writing, government, and science. In Becker muscular dystrophy, there is a reduction in the amount or size of the dystrophin protein.
The gene coding for dystrophin is the largest known gene in humans. More than 1, mutations in this gene have been identified in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy can lead to life-threatening complications, such as breathing difficulties and heart problems. In the past, people with this condition did not usually survive beyond their 20s, but progress is improving the outlook. Currently, the average life expectancy for people with Duchenne is 27 years , and it may improve in time, as treatment progresses. A person with muscular dystrophy is likely to need lifelong assistance.
A great deal is known about the mechanisms of muscular dystrophy, both muscular and genetic, and although a full cure may be some distance away, there are avenues of research that draw ever closer to one. Because the specific gene involved in muscular dystrophy has been found, a replacement gene that could create the missing dystrophin protein is a sensible consideration. There are complicated problems with this approach, including the potential of the immune system to repel a new protein and the large size of the dystrophin gene needing to be replaced.
There are also difficulties in targeting viral vectors directly to the skeletal muscle. Another approach targets utrophin production. Utrophin is a protein similar to dystrophin that is not affected by muscular dystrophy. If utrophin production could be upregulated, the disease might be halted or slowed. If the dystrophin gene is being read by protein synthesis machinery and it reaches a mutation, it stops and does not complete the protein. Drugs are being trialed that cause the protein-making equipment to skip the mutated content and still continue to create dystrophin.
Rather than target the genes behind muscular dystrophy, some researchers are attempting to slow the inevitable muscle wasting. Muscles, in standard circumstances, can repair themselves. Research into controlling or increasing these repairs could show some benefits for people with muscular dystrophy. Researchers are looking at the possibility of inserting muscle stem cells capable of producing the lacking dystrophin protein.
Current projects are looking at the most useful type of cells to use and ways in which they could be delivered to skeletal muscle. During the early stages of muscular dystrophy, myoblasts also called satellite cells repair and replace faulty muscle fibers. As the myoblasts become exhausted, the muscles are slowly turned into connective tissue. Some studies have attempted to insert modified myoblast cells into muscles to take over from the exhausted natural myoblasts.
Article last updated by Yvette Brazier on Mon 18 December All references are available in the References tab. DMD gene - dystrophin. Human Gene Therapy Clinical Development. Learning about Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Duchenne muscular dystrophy and dystrophin: Muscular dystrophy information page. Muscular dystrophy - types. Lacau St Guily, J. Autologous myoblast transplantation for oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy: MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media.
These are called benign tumors. They do not metastasize. Of the different types of cells that form the bladder, the cells lining the inside of the bladder wall are those most likely to develop cancer. Any of three different cell types can become cancerous.
The resulting cancers are named after the cell types. We do not know exactly what causes bladder cancer. Bladder cancer may develop related to changes in DNA the material in cells that makes up genes and controls how cells work. These changes may turn on certain genes, oncogenes, that will tell the cells to grow, divide, and stay alive, or turn off suppressor genes, genes that control the division of cells, repair of mistakes in the DNA, and death of cells. Changes in genes may be inherited passed on from parents or acquired as a result of certain risk factors.
A number of chemicals carcinogens have been identified that are potential causes, especially in cigarette smoke. We do know that the following factors increase a person's risk of developing a bladder cancer:. These are factors you can do something about.
You can stop smoking , learn to avoid workplace chemical exposures, or change your diet. You cannot do anything about the following risk factors for bladder cancer:. These symptoms are nonspecific. This means that these symptoms are also linked with many other conditions that have nothing to do with cancer. Having these symptoms does not necessarily mean you have bladder cancer.
If you have any of these symptoms, you should see your health-care professional right away. People who can see blood in their urine gross hematuria , especially older males who smoke, are considered to have a high likelihood of bladder cancer until proven otherwise. Unfortunately, the blood is often invisible to the eye. This is called microscopic hematuria, and it is detectable with a simple urine test. In some cases, enough blood is in the urine to noticeably change the urine color, gross hematuria.
The urine may have a slightly pink or orange hue, or it may be bright red with or without clots. If your urine changes color beyond just being more or less concentrated, particularly if you see blood in the urine, you need to see your health-care professional promptly.
Visible blood in the urine is referred to as gross, or macroscopic, hematuria. Bladder cancer often causes no symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage that is difficult to cure. Therefore, you may want to talk to your health-care professional about screening tests if you have risk factors for bladder cancer.
Screening is testing for cancer in people who have never had the disease and have no symptoms but who have one or more risk factors. Any new changes in urinary habits or appearance of the urine warrants a visit to your health-care professional, especially if you have risk factors for bladder cancer.
In most cases, bladder cancer is not the cause, but you will be evaluated for other conditions that can cause these symptoms, some of which can be serious. Like all cancers, bladder cancer is most likely to be successfully treated if detected early, when it is small and has not invaded surrounding tissues. The following measures can increase the chance of finding a bladder cancer early:.
These tests are also used to diagnose bladder cancers in people who are having symptoms. The following tests might be done if bladder cancer is suspected:. If a tumor is found in the bladder, other tests may be performed, either at the time of diagnosis or later, to determine whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. A cancer is described as to its extent, or staged, using a system developed by consensus among specialists in cancer.
Staging describes the extent of the cancer when it is first found or diagnosed. This includes the depth of invasion of a bladder cancer, and whether or not the cancer is still only in the bladder, or has already spread to tissues beyond the bladder including lymph nodes , or has spread or metastasized to distant organs. Bladder cancers are classified by how deeply they invade into the bladder wall, which has several layers.
Typically we subdivide bladder cancer into superficial and invasive diseases. In addition to how deeply the cancer penetrates in the bladder wall, the grade of the bladder cancer provides important information and can help guide treatment. The tumor grade is based on the degree of abnormality observed in a microscopic evaluation of the tumor. Cells from a high-grade cancer have more changes in form and have a greater degree of abnormality when viewed microscopically than do cells from a low-grade tumor.
This information is provided by the pathologist, a physician trained in the science of tissue analysis and diagnosis. In addition to papillary tumors, bladder cancer can develop in the form of a flat, red erythematous patch on the mucosal surface. This is called carcinoma-in-situ CIS.