Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

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Type 2 Diabetes in Children
This is because the symptoms are often mild and develop gradually over a number of years. You'll then be given a sweet glucose drink. Your diet should be high in nutrient-rich carbohydrates and fiber. Acarbose Acarbose helps prevent your blood glucose level from increasing too much after you eat a meal. Understanding Type 2 Diabetes The things you've wanted to know about type 2 diabetes are all in one place. Some of the antibodies seen in type 1 diabetes include anti-islet cell antibodies, anti-insulin antibodies and anti-glutamic decarboxylase antibodies.

Risk Factors and Prevention

Type 2 Diabetes

American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. A Systematic Review for the U. Preventive Services Task Force". Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Adults: Preventive Services Task Force. Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 7 October Medical Clinics of North America. Archived from the original PDF on A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". The management of type 2 diabetes". Systematic Review and Meta-analysis".

Archives of Internal Medicine. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3: Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1: Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.

World journal of diabetes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 9: Strippoli, Giovanni FM, ed. Simon, Airin CR, ed. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 7: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity.

Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. Principles of diabetes mellitus 2nd ed. Find more about Diabetes mellitus at Wikipedia's sister projects.

Diseases of the endocrine system E00—E35 , — Hypoglycemia beta cell Hyperinsulinism G cell Zollinger—Ellison syndrome. Iodine deficiency Cretinism Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Myxedema coma Euthyroid sick syndrome. Hyperthyroxinemia Thyroid hormone resistance Familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia Hashitoxicosis Thyrotoxicosis factitia Graves' disease Thyroid storm. Endemic goitre Toxic nodular goitre Toxic multinodular goiter Thyroid nodule. Primary Secondary Tertiary Osteitis fibrosa cystica.

Cushing's syndrome Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome sex hormones: Polycystic ovary syndrome Premature ovarian failure testicular: Hypogonadism Delayed puberty Hypergonadism Precocious puberty Hypoandrogenism Hypoestrogenism Hyperandrogenism Hyperestrogenism Postorgasmic illness syndrome. Diabetes E10—E14 , Blood sugar level Glycosylated hemoglobin Glucose tolerance test Postprandial glucose test Fructosamine Glucose test C-peptide Noninvasive glucose monitor Insulin tolerance test.

Diabetic diet Anti-diabetic drugs Insulin therapy intensive conventional pulsatile Cure Embryonic stem cells Artificial pancreas Other Gastric bypass surgery. Glossary of diabetes Notable people with type 1 diabetes. Retrieved from " https: Aging-associated diseases Diabetes Medical conditions related to obesity.

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Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes [2]. Increased thirst , frequent urination , unexplained weight loss , increased hunger [3]. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state , diabetic ketoacidosis , heart disease , strokes , diabetic retinopathy , kidney failure , amputations [1] [4] [5]. Middle or older age [6]. Obesity , lack of exercise, genetics [1] [6]. Maintaining normal weight, exercising , eating properly [1]. Dietary changes , metformin , insulin, bariatric surgery [1] [7] [8] [9].

D ICD - Hypofunction Diabetes mellitus types: There is a direct correlation between A1c levels and average blood sugar levels as follows. While there are no guidelines to use A1c as a screening tool, it gives a physician a good idea that someone is diabetic if the value is elevated. Right now, it is used as a standard tool to determine blood sugar control in patients known to have diabetes. The American Diabetes Association currently recommends an A1c goal of less than 7.

The closer to normal the A1c, the lower the absolute risk for microvascular complications. It should be mentioned here that there are a number of conditions in which an A1c value may not be accurate. For example, with significant anemia , the red blood cell count is low, and thus the A1c is altered. This may also be the case in sickle cell disease and other hemoglobinopathies. I also agree to receive emails from MedicineNet and I understand that I may opt out of MedicineNet subscriptions at any time.

What are the acute complications of diabetes? In patients with type 2 diabetes, stress , infection, and medications such as corticosteroids can also lead to severely elevated blood sugar levels. Accompanied by dehydration, severe blood sugar elevation in patients with type 2 diabetes can lead to an increase in blood osmolality hyperosmolar state.

This condition can worsen and lead to coma hyperosmolar coma. A hyperosmolar coma usually occurs in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Like diabetic ketoacidosis, a hyperosmolar coma is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment with intravenous fluid and insulin is important in reversing the hyperosmolar state.

Unlike patients with type 1 diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes do not generally develop ketoacidosis solely on the basis of their diabetes. Since in general, type 2 diabetes occurs in an older population, concomitant medical conditions are more likely to be present, and these patients may actually be sicker overall. The complication and death rates from hyperosmolar coma is thus higher than in diabetic ketoacidosis.

Hypoglycemia means abnormally low blood sugar glucose. In patients with diabetes, the most common cause of low blood sugar is excessive use of insulin or other glucose-lowering medications, to lower the blood sugar level in diabetic patients in the presence of a delayed or absent meal. When low blood sugar levels occur because of too much insulin, it is called an insulin reaction.

Sometimes, low blood sugar can be the result of an insufficient caloric intake or sudden excessive physical exertion. Blood glucose is essential for the proper functioning of brain cells. Therefore, low blood sugar can lead to central nervous system symptoms such as:. Untreated, severely low blood sugar levels can lead to coma, seizures , and, in the worst case scenario, irreversible brain death.

The treatment of low blood sugar consists of administering a quickly absorbed glucose source. These include glucose containing drinks, such as orange juice, soft drinks not sugar-free , or glucose tablets in doses of grams at a time for example, the equivalent of half a glass of juice. Even cake frosting applied inside the cheeks can work in a pinch if patient cooperation is difficult. If the individual becomes unconscious, glucagon can be given by intramuscular injection.

Glucagon is a hormone that causes the release of glucose from the liver for example, it promotes gluconeogenesis. Glucagon can be lifesaving and every patient with diabetes who has a history of hypoglycemia particularly those on insulin should have a glucagon kit.

Families and friends of those with diabetes need to be taught how to administer glucagon, since obviously the patients will not be able to do it themselves in an emergency situation. Another lifesaving device that should be mentioned is very simple; a medic-alert bracelet should be worn by all patients with diabetes.

Insulin is vital to patients with type 1 diabetes - they cannot live without a source of exogenous insulin. Without insulin, patients with type 1 diabetes develop severely elevated blood sugar levels. This leads to increased urine glucose, which in turn leads to excessive loss of fluid and electrolytes in the urine. Lack of insulin also causes the inability to store fat and protein along with breakdown of existing fat and protein stores.

This dysregulation, results in the process of ketosis and the release of ketones into the blood. Ketones turn the blood acidic, a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis DKA.

Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include nausea , vomiting , and abdominal pain. Without prompt medical treatment, patients with diabetic ketoacidosis can rapidly go into shock , coma, and even death may result. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be caused by infections, stress , or trauma, all of which may increase insulin requirements. In addition, missing doses of insulin is also an obvious risk factor for developing diabetic ketoacidosis.

Urgent treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis involves the intravenous administration of fluid, electrolytes, and insulin, usually in a hospital intensive care unit. Dehydration can be very severe, and it is not unusual to need to replace liters of fluid when a person presents in diabetic ketoacidosis.

Antibiotics are given for infections. With treatment, abnormal blood sugar levels, ketone production, acidosis, and dehydration can be reversed rapidly, and patients can recover remarkably well. What are the chronic complications of diabetes? These diabetes complications are related to blood vessel diseases and are generally classified into small vessel disease, such as those involving the eyes, kidneys and nerves microvascular disease , and large vessel disease involving the heart and blood vessels macrovascular disease.

Diabetes accelerates hardening of the arteries atherosclerosis of the larger blood vessels, leading to coronary heart disease angina or heart attack , strokes, and pain in the lower extremities because of lack of blood supply claudication. The major eye complication of diabetes is called diabetic retinopathy.

Diabetic retinopathy occurs in patients who have had diabetes for at least five years. Diseased small blood vessels in the back of the eye cause the leakage of protein and blood in the retina. Disease in these blood vessels also causes the formation of small aneurysms microaneurysms , and new but brittle blood vessels neovascularization.

Spontaneous bleeding from the new and brittle blood vessels can lead to retinal scarring and retinal detachment , thus impairing vision. To treat diabetic retinopathy, a laser is used to destroy and prevent the recurrence of the development of these small aneurysms and brittle blood vessels. Poor control of blood sugar and blood pressure further aggravates eye disease in diabetes. Cataracts and glaucoma are also more common among diabetics.

It is also important to note that since the lens of the eye lets water through, if blood sugar concentrations vary a lot, the lens of the eye will shrink and swell with fluid accordingly. As a result, blurry vision is very common in poorly controlled diabetes. Patients are usually discouraged from getting a new eyeglass prescription until their blood sugar is controlled. This allows for a more accurate assessment of what kind of glasses prescription is required.

Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. The onset of kidney disease and its progression is extremely variable. Initially, diseased small blood vessels in the kidneys cause the leakage of protein in the urine. Later on, the kidneys lose their ability to cleanse and filter blood. The accumulation of toxic waste products in the blood leads to the need for dialysis. Dialysis involves using a machine that serves the function of the kidney by filtering and cleaning the blood.

In patients who do not want to undergo chronic dialysis, kidney transplantation can be considered. The progression of nephropathy in patients can be significantly slowed by controlling high blood pressure, and by aggressively treating high blood sugar levels.

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers ARBs used in treating high blood pressure may also benefit kidney disease in patients with diabetes. Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy and is also caused by disease of small blood vessels.

In essence, the blood flow to the nerves is limited, leaving the nerves without blood flow, and they get damaged or die as a result a term known as ischemia. Symptoms of diabetic nerve damage include numbness, burning, and aching of the feet and lower extremities. When the nerve disease causes a complete loss of sensation in the feet, patients may not be aware of injuries to the feet, and fail to properly protect them.

Shoes or other protection should be worn as much as possible. Seemingly minor skin injuries should be attended to promptly to avoid serious infections. Because of poor blood circulation, diabetic foot injuries may not heal. Sometimes, minor foot injuries can lead to serious infection, ulcers, and even gangrene , necessitating surgical amputation of toes, feet, and other infected parts. Diabetic nerve damage can affect the nerves that are important for penile erection, causing erectile dysfunction ED, impotence.

Erectile dysfunction can also be caused by poor blood flow to the penis from diabetic blood vessel disease. Diabetic neuropathy can also affect nerves to the stomach and intestines , causing nausea, weight loss, diarrhea , and other symptoms of gastroparesis delayed emptying of food contents from the stomach into the intestines, due to ineffective contraction of the stomach muscles.

The pain of diabetic nerve damage may respond to traditional treatments with certain medications such as gabapentin Neurontin , phenytoin Dilantin , and carbamazepine Tegretol that are traditionally used in the treatment of seizure disorders.

Amitriptyline Elavil, Endep and desipramine Norpraminine are medications that are traditionally used for depression. While many of these medications are not indicated specifically for the treatment of diabetes related nerve pain , they are used by physicians commonly.

The pain of diabetic nerve damage may also improve with better blood sugar control, though unfortunately blood glucose control and the course of neuropathy do not always go hand in hand. What can be done to slow the complications of diabetes? Findings from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial DCCT and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study UKPDS have clearly shown that aggressive and intensive control of elevated levels of blood sugar in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes decreases the complications of nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and may reduce the occurrence and severity of large blood vessel diseases.

More recently the EDIC trial has shown that type 1 diabetes is also associated with increased heart disease, similar to type 2 diabetes. However, the price for aggressive blood sugar control is a two to three fold increase in the incidence of abnormally low blood sugar levels caused by the diabetes medications.

To achieve optimal glucose control without an undue risk of abnormally lowering blood sugar levels, patients with type 1 diabetes must monitor their blood glucose at least four times a day and administer insulin at least three times per day.

In patients with type 2 diabetes, aggressive blood sugar control has similar beneficial effects on the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. What is the prognosis for a person with diabetes? The prognosis of diabetes is related to the extent to which the condition is kept under control to prevent the development of the complications described in the preceding sections. Some of the more serious complications of diabetes such as kidney failure and cardiovascular disease, can be life-threatening.

Acute complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis can also be life-threatening. As mentioned above, aggressive control of blood sugar levels can prevent or delay the onset of complications, and many people with diabetes lead long and full lives. Learn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options.

Read how diet and exercise can help manage type 2 diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication. The symptoms of diabetes can vary greatly from patient to patient. What were your symptoms at the onset of your disease? What was the cause of your diabetes overweight, lack of physical activity, pregnancy, autoimmune? Please share your experience with type 1 or type 2 diabetes for example, at what age were you diagnosed, your symptoms, treatments, or complications.

Cellulitis is an acute spreading bacterial infection below the surface of the skin characterized by redness, warmth, inflammation, and pain. The most common cause of cellulitis is the bacteria staph Staphylococcus aureus. Kidney pain has a variety of causes and symptoms. Infection, injury, trauma, bleeding disorders, kidney stones, and less common conditions may lead to kidney pain.

Symptoms associated with kidney pain may include. Staphylococcus or staph is a group of bacteria that can cause a multitude of diseases. Staph infections can cause illness directly by infection or indirectly by the toxins they produce. Symptoms and signs of a staph infection include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage of pus. Minor skin infections are treated with an antibiotic ointment, while more serious infections are treated with intravenous antibiotics.

Vaginal yeast infections in women are caused by an organism called Candida albicans. Symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection include vaginal pain with urination, vaginal discharge, odor, and itching. Treatment is generally OTC medications. A man can contract a yeast infection from his female sexual partner.

Symptoms of a yeast infection in men include penile itching. Treatment is with oral or topical medication. Diabetes - Symptoms Patient Comments: Diabetes - Causes Patient Comments: Diabetes - Test Patient Comments: Diabetes - Acute Complication Patient Comments: Diabetes - Experience Find a local Endocrinologist in your town Diabetes type 1 and type 2 definition and facts What is diabetes?

What is type 2 diabetes What are the other types of diabetes? Readers Comments 1 Share Your Story. Symptoms of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms of diabetes can be similar in type 1 diabetes, typically diagnosed in children and teens, and type 2 diabetes, which most often occurs in adults. Symptoms of any type of diabetes are related to high blood and urine glucose levels and include frequent infections, nausea, vomiting, and blurred vision.

Readers Comments 34 Share Your Story. Learn the Warning Signs. Take the Diabetes Quiz! Readers Comments 10 Share Your Story. Readers Comments 4 Share Your Story.

Diabetes Public Health Resource. Related Article Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication Learn about type 2 diabetes warning signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. Patient Comments Diabetes - Symptoms The symptoms of diabetes can vary greatly from patient to patient. Post View 34 Comments Diabetes - Causes What was the cause of your diabetes overweight, lack of physical activity, pregnancy, autoimmune?

Post View 10 Comments Diabetes - Test What type of diabetes test do you use to check your blood sugar at home? Post View 4 Comments Diabetes - Acute Complication What causes your blood sugar readings to spike, and what action do you take to lower them? Post View 5 Comments Diabetes - Experience Please share your experience with type 1 or type 2 diabetes for example, at what age were you diagnosed, your symptoms, treatments, or complications. Post View 1 Comment.

Complete List Top Diabetes Mellitus Related Articles Cellulitis Cellulitis is an acute spreading bacterial infection below the surface of the skin characterized by redness, warmth, inflammation, and pain. Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles.

Creatinine has been found to be a fairly reliable indicator of kidney function. As the kidneys become impaired the creatinine level in the blood will rise. Normal levels of creatinine in the blood vary from gender and age of the individual.

Learn more about diabetes related foot problems. For people with diabetes, too much glucose in the blood can cause serious foot complications such as nerve damage, infection, and ulcers. Find tips for proper foot care to help prevent serious complications.

Take the Diabetes Quiz and learn the causes, signs, symptoms, and types of this growing epidemic. What does diabetes have to do with obesity and diet? Learn about life as a diabetic. Diabetic retinopathy, a common complication of diabetes, affects the blood vessels in the retina the thin light-sensitive membrane that covers the back of the eye.

See a picture of Diabetic Retinopathy and learn more about the health topic. Ferritin is a protein in the body that is used to store iron. The ferritin blood test can detect elevated or low levels of ferritin in the body, which may indicate disease such as hemochromatosis, rheumatoid arthritis, certain cancers, anemia, or iron deficiency.

What is heart disease coronary artery disease? Learn about the causes of heart disease. Symptoms of heart disease include chest pain and shortness of breath. Explore heart disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Learn about heart disease and heart attack symptoms and signs of a heart attack in men and women. Read about heart disease diagnostic tests, treatments, and prevention strategies. Jock itch is an itchy red rash that appears in the groin area. The rash may be caused by a bacterial or fungal infection. People with diabetes and those who are obese are more susceptible to developing jock itch. Antifungal shampoos, creams, and pills may be needed to treat fungal jock itch.

Bacterial jock itch may be treated with antibacterial soaps and topical and oral antibiotics. Symptoms associated with kidney pain may include fever, vomiting, nausea, flank pain, and painful urination. Treatment of kidney pain depends on the cause of the pain.

Metabolic syndrome is serious and you should be concerned. Learn the causes, symptoms, treatments, and complications of metabolic syndrome with our quick quiz. Triglycerides are a common form of fat that we digest. Triglycerides are the main ingredient in animal fats and vegetable oils. Elevated levels of triglycerides are a risk factor for heart disease, heart attack, stroke, fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis.

Elevated levels of triglycerides are also associated with diseases like diabetes, kidney disease, and medications for example, diuretics, birth control pills, and beta blockers.