What is Astaxanthin?
There are three major points of ripening that make plantains a versatile fruit to prepare:. Quantum mechanics, science dealing with the behaviour of matter and light on the atomic and subatomic…. Every few years, carbohydrates are vilified as public enemy number one and are accused of being the root of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and more. These reserves may be released when dietary intakes are low. Fiber helps to reduce inflammation as it removes waste and toxins from the body, keeping arteries clear from dangerous plague build-up 4 5. You can use them as a potato substitute or pair them with a spicy dish as a side. Inflammation is the process by which the body begins to heal and defend itself from viral and bacterial infections and physical damage like burns or cuts.
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An animal must be able to move nutrients and fluids through its body, and it must be able to react to external or internal stimuli. Muscle cells fuel their actions by converting chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate ATP , which is derived from the metabolism of food, into mechanical energy.
Muscle is contractile tissue grouped into coordinated systems for greater efficiency. In humans the muscle systems are classified by gross appearance and location of cells. The three types of muscles are striated or skeletal , cardiac, and smooth or nonstriated. The multinucleated fibres are under the control of the somatic nervous system and elicit movement by forces exerted on the skeleton similar to levers and pulleys.
Although cardiac muscle is specialized striated muscle consisting of elongated cells with many centrally located nuclei, it is not under voluntary control. Smooth muscle lines the viscera, blood vessels, and dermis , and, like cardiac muscle, its movements are operated by the autonomic nervous system and thus are not under voluntary control.
The nucleus of each short tapering cell is located centrally. Unicellular organisms, simple animals, and the motile cells of complex animals do not have vast muscle systems. Rather, movement in these organisms is elicited by hairlike extensions of the cell membrane called cilia and flagella or by cytoplasmic extensions called pseudopodia. This article consists of a comparative study of the muscle systems of various animals, including an explanation of the process of muscle contraction.
For an account of the human muscle system as it relates to upright posture, see muscle system, human. The total amount of muscle proteins in mammals, including humans, exceeds that of any other protein. About 40 percent of the body weight of a healthy human adult weighing about 70 kilograms pounds is muscle , which is composed of about 20 percent…. Muscle powers the movements of multicellular animals and maintains posture. Its gross appearance is familiar as meat or as the flesh of fish.
Muscle is the most plentiful tissue in many animals; for example, it makes up 50 to 60 percent of the body mass in many fishes and 40 to 50 percent in antelopes. Some muscles are under conscious control and are called voluntary muscles. Other muscles, called involuntary muscles, are not consciously controlled by the organism.
For example, in vertebrates, muscles in the walls of the heart contract rhythmically, pumping blood around the body; muscles in the walls of the intestines move food along by peristalsis; and muscles in the walls of small blood vessels constrict or relax, controlling the flow of blood to different parts of the body.
The effects of muscle changes in the blood vessels are apparent in blushing and paling due to increased or decreased blood flow, respectively, to the skin.
Muscles are not the only means of movement in animals. Many protists unicellular organisms move instead by using cilia or flagella actively beating processes of the cell surface that propel the organism through water. Some unicellular organisms are capable of amoeboid movement, in which the cell contents flow into extensions, called pseudopodia , from the cell body. Some of the ciliated protozoans move by means of rods called myonemes, which are capable of shortening rapidly.
Nonmuscular methods of movement are important for multicellular animals as well. Many microscopic animals swim by means of beating cilia. Some small mollusks and flatworms crawl using cilia on the underside of the body. Some invertebrates that feed by filtering particles from water use cilia to create the necessary water currents.
In higher animals, white blood cells use amoeboid movements, and cilia from cells lining the respiratory tract remove foreign particles from the delicate membranes. Muscles consist of long slender cells fibres , each of which is a bundle of finer fibrils Figure 1.
Within each fibril are relatively thick filaments of the protein myosin and thin ones of actin and other proteins. When a muscle fibre lengthens or shortens, the filaments remain essentially constant in length but slide past each other as shown in Figure 2.
Tension in active muscles is produced by cross bridges i. As the active muscle lengthens or shortens and the filaments slide past each other, the cross bridges repeatedly detach and reattach in new positions.
Their action is similar to pulling in a rope hand over hand. Some muscle fibres are several centimetres long, but most other cells are only a fraction of a millimetre long. Because these long fibres cannot be served adequately by a single nucleus, numerous nuclei are distributed along their length.
The work done by muscle requires chemical energy derived from the metabolism of food. When muscles shorten while exerting tension and performing mechanical work, some of the chemical energy is converted to work and some is lost as heat. When muscles lengthen while exerting tension such as in slowly lowering a weight , the chemical energy that is used, along with the mechanical energy absorbed by the action, is converted to heat. Generation of heat is an important function of muscle in warm-blooded animals.
Shivering is muscle activity that generates heat and warms the body. Similarly, some insects vibrate their wings for a while before flight, heating the muscles to the temperature at which they work best. Muscle fibres differ from species to species of animal and between parts of the same animal.
Apart from the distinction between voluntary and involuntary muscles, muscles differ in structure and activity. Muscles differ in the arrangement of their myofilaments. The principal types of muscles are striated muscle , in which the filaments are organized in transverse bands as in Figure 2 ; obliquely striated muscle , in which the filaments are staggered, making the bands oblique Figure 3 ; and smooth muscle , in which the filaments are arranged irregularly.
In vertebrates, all voluntary muscles are striated, and all involuntary muscles are smooth, except for cardiac muscle, which is involuntary but striated. Obliquely striated muscle is found only in some invertebrate groups the nematodes, annelids, and mollusks and has the protein paramyosin in the thick filaments as well as myosin.
Muscles differ in the stimuli required to activate them. In vertebrates, voluntary muscles require action potentials electrical signals in their nerves to initiate every contraction. Some involuntary muscles are spontaneously active, and the action potentials in their nerves only modify the natural rhythm of contraction. The leg muscles of all insects, and the wing muscles of many, require action potentials to initiate every contraction; however, the wing muscles of other insects consist of fibrillar muscle , which requires only occasional action potentials to maintain its rapid rhythmic contractions.
The wings of these insects are attached to the body in such a way as to have a resonant frequency of vibration like a guitar string that vibrates when plucked at its resonant frequency. You must attribute the article to NutritionFacts.
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Am J Clin Nutr. Conquering atherosclerosis starts with improving medical education. JS Alpert, R Coles. A modest proposal repeated. There are milligrams of potassium in one cup of cooked, mashed plantains. That accounts for about 20 percent of your recommended daily amount of potassium, making plantains one of the most potassium-rich foods on the planet.
Potassium is the third-most abundant mineral in the body, but when depleted, low potassium can affect the function of a number of organs and processes. Potassium is an electrolyte and is affected greatly by the amount of sodium in the body.
Potassium plays a major role in regulating blood pressure because it combats the effects of sodium. Snacking on plantains or adding them as a side dish are delicious ways to reach your daily potassium goals and help naturally remedy high blood pressure. Potassium levels also affect skeletal and smooth muscle contraction, which allows for regular digestive and muscular function. It also helps regulate heart rhythm, and studies show that people who consume diets with high potassium levels tend to be at a lower risk of stroke, osteoporosis and renal disease.
Fiber has a profound effect on the digestive system and plays a significant role in keeping it regular. As a high-fiber food , plantains add bulk to food intake, which aids digestion. Fiber also make you feel full, which can help with weight control. Thus, increasing intake of dietary fiber can also help enhance weight loss in obese individuals. Soluble fiber is also known to help lower cholesterol and blood pressure, which prevents heart disease 6.
Free radicals, which are made when your body breaks down food or when you are exposed to other harmful elements like tobacco smoke or radiation, play a part in aging, diseases and cancer. Vitamin C is one of the most powerful vitamins, as it has a hand in growing and repairing tissues all over the body. Looking to boost your immune system? Then plantains are the perfect snack. They pack 36 percent of your daily recommended amount of vitamin A. As another powerful antioxidant, vitamin A provides a number of benefits to the body.
Vitamin A also has a large part in skin health and cell growth, and is a necessary element for wound healing. Cells that overreact to certain foods are the root of food allergies and ultimately cause inflammation.
Vitamin B6, also called pyridoxine, generates several important neurotransmitters that carry information from one cell to another. A serving of plantains can provide up to 24 percent of your daily amount needed of vitamin B6. Homocysteine levels an amino acid linked to heart disease and nervous system damage are also controlled by vitamin B6.
The vitamin keeps levels low to help prevent damage and maintain the health of blood vessels. Similar to vitamin A, B6 also helps slow the onset of eye diseases like macular degeneration. Magnesium deficiency is a very common problem thanks to Western diets and depleted soil due to overfarming. From helping to regulate blood pressure to preventing osteoporosis, there are many ways magnesium keeps the body healthy. Magnesium directly affects calcium absorption, which can avert or reverse osteoporosis.
Magnesium has also long been used to help with migraine headaches, insomnia and depression. In a study from the International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences , dried plantain powder showed a significant ulcer-healing effect on an aspirin-induced gastric ulcer.