Coffee and Acne: Does Coffee Trigger Acne?

Vegetable Topics

Debunking The Milk Myth: Why Milk Is Bad For You And Your Bones
This small-batch salve is made right here in our kitchen using only the finest, most pure ingredients. A new study investigates the role of an antioxidant in the progression of osteoarthritis. The best example of this is iodized salt - iodine is added to prevent iodine deficiency, which affects about 2 billion people , globally; it causes mental retardation and thyroid gland problems. If contact occurs, rinse thoroughly with water. The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid DGLA serves as a building block for series 1 prostaglandins e. Total Effects Daily Moisturizer, Olay, 1.

Want to listen instead of reading? Check out our podcast episode about coffee and acne:

Nutrition: What is it and why is it important?

Since the range of dental disease occurring in wild chinchillas is unknown, the dentition of museum specimens originally obtained from the wild was assessed and compared with specimens prepared from captive bred animals. Skulls from wild-caught chinchillas showed minimal evidence of dental disease and the teeth were all short, cheek tooth lengths averaging 5.

Cheek tooth lengths in zoo specimens average 6. Captive bred specimens showed a wide range of tooth related lesions.

It is suggested that the diet its physical form and composition is the main etiological factor, and that provision of a diet closely matching that of wild chinchillas should significantly reduce the incidence of dental disease in captive chinchillas.

It is absolutely vital that a chin never goes without his hay, and by providing a variety of hays you will encourage your chin's interest in consuming it while supplying him with greater nutritional benefit.

Grinding and chewing course hay also keeps continuously growing teeth filed down, preventing molar spurs and other dental problems, like overgrowth and malocclusion. Although most chins aren't extremely particular about the brand or distributor of hay as long as it is of high quality, if your chinchilla isn't eating his hay you will need to switch to another brand or distributor until you find one that he prefers.

The dietary staples of fresh, high quality pellets , hay and distilled or filtered water should ALWAYS be available for consumption; chinchillas will not overeat of their dietary staples, only treats.

Good quality hay will not look dullish brown and dead, it will both look and smell bright, clean and dry, as if it had just been cut and dried in warm sunshine. It will be free of thorns, dampness, dustiness, mold and musty odors. Be aware that there will always be a little waste with hay and as chins are selective feeders they often go for the soft, leafier parts before the stalk.

Therefore, it's important to leave the stalk in for a day or two as long as it's still clean and fresh to allow the chin the opportunity to finish consuming it. Of course, whatever hay becomes soiled or is clearly regarded by the chin as unfit for consumption should be cleared out and replaced with a new supply. Always keep edibles on the top level of the cage , where they are most likely to stay clean and clear of fecal droppings and urine.

A non-breeding pet chin's primary hay, for daily use, should be high in fiber and low in protein , and grass hays in general timothy, mountain grass, brome, orchard grass, etc. The basis for the old "high-fiber, low protein" hay guideline is that most pellets were and are still alfalfa-based, and so the logic went that since alfalfa a legume hay is a high-fiber, high protein hay, the pellets were already supplying sufficient protein for a non-breeding pet chin.

Of course, if a chin is being fed a timothy-based pellet, then he should get alfalfa as his primary hay to ensure sufficient protein consumption.

In our opinion, after many years of seeing hundreds of chins from every type of situation and adoption source , we have to say that by far the healthiest chins that we've observed, in particular those without calcium deficiency problems, have come from a background where alfalfa was served as the primary hay and where there were little to no dietary extras offered, especially those high in protein, fat, oils or phosphorus e.

When alfalfa is served as a primary hay for non-breeding pet chinchillas on an alfalfa-based pellet diet, it will NOT cause obesity which is rare in chins but can happen if denied opportunities for exercise as long as the chinchilla receives regular, vigorous exercise and he is not served dietary extras that are high in protein. It's important to look at the diet as a whole rather than over-analyzing the parts when trying to achieve the "high-fiber, low protein" balance, and since alfalfa hay contains MANY beneficial vitamins and minerals ref- purlife.

Grain hays oat, wheat, barley, etc. The articles and guaranteed analysis charts section provides additional information. Sometimes a chin may have a slight sensitivity to hay, especially if he's inhaled some small particles, in which case he may make the nose-clearing sound and wipe his nose. But be observant, as these symptoms can indicate the onset of pneumonia or other respiratory problems.

Regarding hay cubes and loose hay: An interesting read about hay cubes and their benefits in this. Chinchillas are not prone to Esophageal choke from eating pellets and hay cubes , and their hay cubes must be dry , the same as with loose hay. Hay cubes are chopped and compressed hay, they typically come in timothy or alfalfa and both hay cubes and loose hay provide a chin with his necessary nutritional fiber.

If your chinchilla is experiencing difficulty chewing due to dental problems, try crumbling hay from a hay cube into a bowl for him to eat from.

Cubes are also ideal to put in a carrier when shipping, transporting or travelling with your chin. Loose hay requires more grinding from the molars which is a good thing because it isn't chopped like the compressed hay in hay cubes. But the hay in hay cubes isn't exactly minced and still requires some molar grinding, and in the area of incisor wear there is definitely an advantage because the chin must pry flakes loose from the compacted cube.

Hay cubes are practically mess-free, especially with a wire bottom cage where any small, unconsumed bits easily fall through into the litter pan. Hay cubes have less dust than loose hay, making them less of an allergy irritant. There may appear to be less waste with hay cubes than with loose hay, but if allowed to choose between, most chins will prefer to eat the unprocessed loose hay and let their hay cube go to waste.

We have yet to see the perfect hay manger for loose hay, inevitably if a chin can pull hay out at all then he soon has most of it pulled out and scattered about his cage, necessitating more diligent cleanup by his chinparent. But that's okay, because loose hay has some key advantages over hay cubes that make it worthwhile. As previously noted, chinchillas usually prefer the unprocessed loose hay when given a choice, and with loose hay there is also a greater selection of hay types to choose from.

Providing a variety of hays can keep hay consumption at peak levels because the chin stays interested in eating his hay. When storing loose hay or hay cubes, push the air out of the bag or container but DO leave it slightly vented for continued minimum air circulation.

Hay has some inherent moisture and if kept in an air-tight or tightly sealed container it can mold. Place container in a dry, cool place with no exposure to dampness, direct sunlight or potential contamination of any kind. Additional Articles and Guaranteed Analysis Charts Alfalfa hay, forage quality terms and definitions. American Pet Diner , Oxbow Guaranteed analysis for hay cubes: This is not to suggest that a chin should be given an overfilled pellet bowl that is allowed to sit exposed for days, vulnerable to soiling or spilling before it is consumed.

A chin's daily pellet supply should be both adequate in amount, determined by his personal consumption, and fresh.

There has been the suggestion that pellets should be rationed in order to compel the chin to eat more hay, the reasoning behind this is that there would be greater benefit to digestive and dental health if the chin consumed more roughage than pelleted "soft food. Also, when both pellets and hay are offered in unlimited quantities, chinchillas typically show a stronger preference for hay anyway, provided that the hay is appealing in its quality and freshness, and especially when a variety is offered in order to maintain interest and supply greater nutritional benefit.

Although there have been no nutritional studies conducted on chinchillas in captivity to date to determine what the chinchilla's definite nutritional requirements are pellets today seem to have simply evolved from rancher trial-and-error , what we do know for certain from understanding the chinchilla's diet in the wild is that chinchilla pellets need to be high in fiber to meet their nutritional and digestive needs hay also makes a vital contribution to dietary fiber.

Protein should be the second nutritional percentage and slightly less than the fiber content. Animal ingredients or by-products should never be present in the ingredients listing because chinchillas are strictly vegetarian. Regarding whether rabbit pellets are safe and acceptable for chins or not This of course depends on the particular brand of rabbit pellet and what its ingredients and guaranteed analysis are. Because those variables are subject to change, the chinparent should always check with the manufacturer's site, first.

If the rabbit pellet's ingredients are the same as those found in quality chinchilla pellets, and if the guaranteed analysis approximates that of quality chinchilla pellets e. In the past, the widespread warning against feeding rabbit pellets to chins centered around the concern that there were hormones added to the pellets of rabbits raised for meat production.

We were told when we inquired on Chins-n-Quills, a major chinchilla forum that is now defunct, that this practice had been discontinued in the 's, and a USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service page that was last updated in when we referenced it in , appeared to verify that: Antibiotics may be given to prevent or treat diseases in rabbits.

A "withdrawal" period is required from the time antibiotics are administered until it is legal to slaughter the animal. This allows time for residues to exit the animal's system. FSIS randomly samples rabbits at slaughter and tests for antibiotic residues.

No hormones are used in rabbit raising. Pellets manufactured and intended for other species birds, gerbils, etc. Feeding pellet mixes with "treat" bits in them as a daily diet is also very ill-advised. Chinchillas are selective, or opportunistic, feeders and this means that they will either dig out or pick through the mix in pursuit of the more tasty not necessarily the most nutritious morsels. This results in a poor diet that can lead to malnutrition , and some of the ingredients in pellet mixes are capable of causing digestive distress or bloat , especially when fed in substantial amounts or over time.

However, pellet mixes can be periodically offered in a separate bowl as a treat. Chinchillas eat and gnaw by grasping and positioning the item with their front paws, which they use much the same way people use their hands. Pellets should be offered in a clean bowl made of non-hazardous material such as stainless steel or ceramic. Plastic bowls or J-Type feeders can be lethal! Store pellets properly to prevent rapid decay, mold or contamination: Pellets should be stored in a sealed container in a dry, cool place with no exposure to dampness, direct sunlight or potential contamination of any kind, for example, out of the reach of children or other household pets, away from household chemicals, etc.

Bear in mind that without refridgeration, pellets will lose their nutritional value more quickly and should be entirely consumed by the expiration date or within about a month from date of purchase. Cold food, contrary to rare myth , does not cause " fits. To make your chin's pellets more appetizing, dust them with rose hips powder.

When offering fresh pellets in the evening, just put some rose hips powder on top and mix the powder and pellets together right in the chin's bowl be sure you've washed and dried your hands well, first.

Rose hips powder is available at health food stores and from suppliers that stock herbs, such as Mountain Rose Herbs. This adds a sweet taste to their pellets that chins just love, without adding sugar to their diet. Rose hips are high in vitamin C , and it is strongly recommended that chins get additional vitamin C they can't get "too much" vitamin C and excess is eliminated, not stored in their diet because it helps prevent dental disease by strengthening the connective tissue which holds the chin's open-rooted teeth in place.

When changing pellet brands do so gradually, mixing in some of the previous feed pellets in decreasing amounts over the course of about a week. A slow change will help the chin's digestive system adjust, but since pellets aren't really a rich food, the primary reason for introducing them slowly is to give the chin a chance to learn to like something new.

Always discontinue treats when introducing a dietary change, you can resume when the changeover is complete. If you are transferring the chin from a bad diet to a good one the change is absolutely necessary and you must see to it that the changeover successfully takes place. Be aware that a chin's initial reaction to change or the unfamiliar is typically one of reluctance or distrust. This is often mistakenly perceived as the chin rejecting the new in preference of the old, but the initial reaction is not a gauge of the chin's likes and dislikes as much as it is a demonstration of the fact that chins simply need time to adjust to something different.

This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar. Additionally, fiber, perhaps especially that from whole grains, is thought to possibly help lessen insulin spikes, and therefore reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. The link between increased fiber consumption and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer is still uncertain.

A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms , bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglycerides three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone. Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded , so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length.

Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated one double-bond or polyunsaturated many double-bonds. Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids.

Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans -isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called partial hydrogenation. There are nine kilocalories in each gram of fat. Fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid , catalpic acid, eleostearic acid and punicic acid , in addition to providing energy, represent potent immune modulatory molecules.

Saturated fats typically from animal sources have been a staple in many world cultures for millennia. Saturated and some trans fats are typically solid at room temperature such as butter or lard , while unsaturated fats are typically liquids such as olive oil or flaxseed oil. Trans fats are very rare in nature, and have been shown to be highly detrimental to human health, but have properties useful in the food processing industry, such as rancidity resistance.

Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids and always by expending energy to do so. However, in humans, at least two fatty acids are essential and must be included in the diet. An appropriate balance of essential fatty acids— omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids —seems also important for health, although definitive experimental demonstration has been elusive.

Both of these "omega" long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for a class of eicosanoids known as prostaglandins , which have roles throughout the human body. They are hormones , in some respects. The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid EPA , which can be made in the human body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid ALA , or taken in through marine food sources, serves as a building block for series 3 prostaglandins e. The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid DGLA serves as a building block for series 1 prostaglandins e.

An appropriately balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 partly determines the relative production of different prostaglandins, which is one reason why a balance between omega-3 and omega-6 is believed important for cardiovascular health. In industrialized societies, people typically consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils, which have reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids along with too much of omega-6 fatty acids relative to omega-3 fatty acids.

Moreover, the conversion desaturation of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme deltadesaturase , which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin up-regulation and glucagon down-regulation. The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can influence processes involving insulin, glucagon, and other hormones; therefore, the ratio of omega-3 versus omega-6 has wide effects on general health, and specific effects on immune function and inflammation , and mitosis i.

Proteins are structural materials in much of the animal body e. They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body. Each protein molecule is composed of amino acids , which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur these components are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in hair.

The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins protein retention and to replace damaged proteins maintenance. As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet. Excess amino acids are discarded, typically in the urine. For all animals, some amino acids are essential an animal cannot produce them internally and some are non-essential the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds.

About twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are essential and, therefore, must be included in the diet. A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids especially those that are essential is particularly important in some situations: A complete protein source contains all the essential amino acids; an incomplete protein source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.

It is possible with protein combinations of two incomplete protein sources e. However, complementary sources of protein do not need to be eaten at the same meal to be used together by the body. Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; including urine and feces , sweating , and by water vapour in the exhaled breath.

Therefore, it is necessary to adequately rehydrate to replace lost fluids. Early recommendations for the quantity of water required for maintenance of good health suggested that 6—8 glasses of water daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration.

Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods. For healthful hydration, the current EFSA guidelines recommend total water intakes of 2. These reference values include water from drinking water, other beverages, and from food.

The EFSA panel also determined intakes for different populations. Recommended intake volumes in the elderly are the same as for adults as despite lower energy consumption, the water requirement of this group is increased due to a reduction in renal concentrating capacity.

Dehydration and over-hydration - too little and too much water, respectively - can have harmful consequences. Drinking too much water is one of the possible causes of hyponatremia , i. Pure ethanol provides 7 calories per gram. For distilled spirits , a standard serving in the United States is 1. A 5 ounce serving of wine contains to calories. A 12 ounce serving of beer contains 95 to calories.

Alcoholic beverages are considered empty calorie foods because other than calories, these contribute no essential nutrients. The micronutrients are minerals , vitamins , and others. Dietary minerals are inorganic chemical elements required by living organisms, [70] other than the four elements carbon , hydrogen , nitrogen , and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules.

The term "mineral" is archaic, since the intent is to describe simply the less common elements in the diet. Some are heavier than the four just mentioned, including several metals , which often occur as ions in the body.

Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or sometimes even from natural inorganic sources such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells. Some minerals are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such sources. On the other hand, minerals are often artificially added to the diet as supplements; the most famous is likely iodine in iodized salt which prevents goiter.

Many elements are essential in relative quantity; they are usually called "bulk minerals". Some are structural, but many play a role as electrolytes. Many elements are required in trace amounts, usually because they play a catalytic role in enzymes.

Vitamins are essential nutrients, [70] necessary in the diet for good health. Vitamin D is an exception, as it can be synthesized in the skin in the presence of UVB radiation , and many animal species can synthesize vitamin C. Vitamin deficiencies may result in disease conditions, including goitre , scurvy , osteoporosis , impaired immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain forms of cancer, symptoms of premature aging, and poor psychological health , among many others.

Phytochemicals such as polyphenols are compounds produced naturally in plants phyto means "plant" in Greek. In general, the term is used to refer to compounds which do not appear to be nutritionally essential and yet may have positive impacts on health. To date, there is no conclusive evidence in humans that polyphenols or other non-nutrient compounds from plants have health benefit effects.

While initial studies sought to reveal if nutrient antioxidant supplements might promote health, one meta-analysis concluded that supplementation with vitamins A and E and beta-carotene did not convey any benefits and may in fact increase risk of death.

Vitamin C and selenium supplements did not impact mortality rate. Health effects of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as polyphenols were not assessed in this review. Animal intestines contain a large population of gut flora. In humans, the four dominant phyla are Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes , Actinobacteria , and Proteobacteria. Bacteria in the large intestine perform many important functions for humans, including breaking down and aiding in the absorption of fermentable fiber, stimulating cell growth, repressing the growth of harmful bacteria, training the immune system to respond only to pathogens, producing vitamin B 12 , and defending against some infectious diseases.

There is not yet a scientific consensus as to health benefits accruing from probiotics or prebiotics. Carnivore and herbivore diets are contrasting, with basic nitrogen and carbon proportions vary for their particular foods. Many herbivores rely on bacterial fermentation to create digestible nutrients from indigestible plant cellulose, while obligate carnivores must eat animal meats to obtain certain vitamins or nutrients their bodies cannot otherwise synthesize.

Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. Some elements are directly involved in plant metabolism. However, this principle does not account for the so-called beneficial elements, whose presence, while not required, has clear positive effects on plant growth. A nutrient that is able to limit plant growth according to Liebig's law of the minimum is considered an essential plant nutrient if the plant cannot complete its full life cycle without it.

There are 16 essential plant soil nutrients, besides the three major elemental nutrients carbon and oxygen that are obtained by photosynthetic plants from carbon dioxide in air, and hydrogen , which is obtained from water. Plants uptake essential elements from the soil through their roots and from the air consisting of mainly nitrogen and oxygen through their leaves.

Green plants obtain their carbohydrate supply from the carbon dioxide in the air by the process of photosynthesis. Carbon and oxygen are absorbed from the air, while other nutrients are absorbed from the soil. These hydrogen ions displace cations attached to negatively charged soil particles so that the cations are available for uptake by the root. In the leaves, stomata open to take in carbon dioxide and expel oxygen. The carbon dioxide molecules are used as the carbon source in photosynthesis.

Although nitrogen is plentiful in the Earth's atmosphere, very few plants can use this directly. Most plants, therefore, require nitrogen compounds to be present in the soil in which they grow. This is made possible by the fact that largely inert atmospheric nitrogen is changed in a nitrogen fixation process to biologically usable forms in the soil by bacteria. Plant nutrition is a difficult subject to understand completely, partially because of the variation between different plants and even between different species or individuals of a given clone.

Elements present at low levels may cause deficiency symptoms, and toxicity is possible at levels that are too high. Furthermore, deficiency of one element may present as symptoms of toxicity from another element, and vice versa. Canada's Food Guide is an example of a government-run nutrition program. Produced by Health Canada , the guide advises food quantities, provides education on balanced nutrition, and promotes physical activity in accordance with government-mandated nutrient needs.

Like other nutrition programs around the world, Canada's Food Guide divides nutrition into four main food groups: Dietary and physical activity guidelines from the USDA are presented in the concept of MyPlate , which superseded the food pyramid , which replaced the Four Food Groups. Department of Health and Human Services provides a sample week-long menu that fulfills the nutritional recommendations of the government. Governmental organisations have been working on nutrition literacy interventions in non-primary health care settings to address the nutrition information problem in the U.

The FNP has developed a series of tools to help families participating in the Food Stamp Program stretch their food dollar and form healthful eating habits including nutrition education. It is designed to assist limited-resource audiences in acquiring the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and changed behavior necessary for nutritionally sound diets, and to contribute to their personal development and the improvement of the total family diet and nutritional well-being.

Launched in , this program promotes lifelong healthful eating patterns and physically active lifestyles for children and their families. It is an interactive educational program designed to help prevent childhood obesity through classroom activities that teach children healthful eating habits and physical exercise. Nutrition is taught in schools in many countries. In England and Wales , the Personal and Social Education and Food Technology curricula include nutrition, stressing the importance of a balanced diet and teaching how to read nutrition labels on packaging.

In many schools, a Nutrition class will fall within the Family and Consumer Science or Health departments. In some American schools, students are required to take a certain number of FCS or Health related classes.

Nutrition is offered at many schools, and, if it is not a class of its own, nutrition is included in other FCS or Health classes such as: In many Nutrition classes, students learn about the food groups, the food pyramid, Daily Recommended Allowances, calories, vitamins, minerals, malnutrition, physical activity, healthful food choices, portion sizes, and how to live a healthy life.

In the US, Registered dietitian nutritionists RDs or RDNs [89] are health professionals qualified to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice which includes a review of what is eaten, a thorough review of nutritional health, and a personalized nutritional treatment plan.

They also provide preventive and therapeutic programs at work places, schools and similar institutions. Certified Clinical Nutritionists or CCNs, are trained health professionals who also offer dietary advice on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs.

These Board Certified Nutritionists typically specialize in obesity and chronic disease. In order to become board certified, potential CNS candidate must pass an examination, much like Registered Dieticians. This exam covers specific domains within the health sphere including; Clinical Intervention and Human Health.

The study found that health literacy increases with education and people living below the level of poverty have lower health literacy than those above it. Another study examining the health and nutrition literacy status of residents of the lower Mississippi Delta found that 52 percent of participants had a high likelihood of limited literacy skills. For example, only 12 percent of study participants identified the My Pyramid graphic two years after it had been launched by the USDA.

The study also found significant relationships between nutrition literacy and income level and nutrition literacy and educational attainment [93] further delineating priorities for the region. Among these problems are the lack of information about food choices, a lack of understanding of nutritional information and its application to individual circumstances, limited or difficult access to healthful foods, and a range of cultural influences and socioeconomic constraints such as low levels of education and high levels of poverty that decrease opportunities for healthful eating and living.

The links between low health literacy and poor health outcomes has been widely documented [94] and there is evidence that some interventions to improve health literacy have produced successful results in the primary care setting. More must be done to further our understanding of nutrition literacy specific interventions in non-primary care settings [93] in order to achieve better health outcomes.

Malnutrition refers to insufficient, excessive, or imbalanced consumption of nutrients by an organism. In developed countries, the diseases of malnutrition are most often associated with nutritional imbalances or excessive consumption. In developing countries, malnutrition is more likely to be caused by poor access to a range of nutritious foods or inadequate knowledge. The aim was to boost nutrition and livelihoods by producing a product that women could make and sell, and which would be accepted by the local community because of its local heritage.

Although under- and over-nutrition are often viewed as human problems, pet animals can be under- or overfed by their owners, domesticated animals can be undernourished for macro- and micro-nutrients, affecting growth and health, and wild animals can be undernourished to the point of starvation and death. Nutritionism is the view that excessive reliance on food science and the study of nutrition can lead to poor nutrition and to ill health. It was originally credited to Gyorgy Scrinis , [96] and was popularized by Michael Pollan.

Since nutrients are invisible, policy makers rely on nutrition experts to advise on food choices. Call it the Rainbow Theory of Shopping. The more your shopping basket looks like a rainbow of color, the better off your diet will be.

Should my diet be adjusted for my individual needs? One of the possible modifications is the amount of food that will be required to meet your calorie needs. Because both individual metabolism—the rate at which your body is using energy at the cellular level—and lifestyle can significantly affect calorie requirements, it is always difficult to make generic recommendations on how many calories someone needs every day. You may have an innately higher than normal rate of metabolism, an energy-demanding job as a construction worker, or an intensive daily exercise schedule, all of which serve to increase your calorie needs.

Here are some examples of why you should adjust your diet: The need for additional calories: Regardless of these individual variants, the total intake of food that you need daily is somewhat increased by a chronic viral infection like HIV since the energy demanded by an ongoing immune response to the virus is constantly burning up calories.

In addition, any other infections—including not only opportunistic infections, but any others that you might develop—will further increase this need for additional calories.

Weighing yourself regularly and keeping a weight diary can be very useful for ensuring that your daily food intake is sufficient to maintain your body. Asking your physician to do a bioelectrical impedance analysis BIA regularly will also help keep track of your body status. This simple test provides information on your body percentages of fat, muscle, and water.

Tracked over time, it can give clear indications of unhealthy changes Dealing with lactose intolerance: It is quite common for HIV-positive people, especially those with more advanced disease, to develop lactose intolerance—an inability to properly digest the milk sugar lactose that results in gas or diarrhea when dairy products are consumed.

The severity of this problem is highly variable, with some people unable to tolerate even small amounts of dairy products, while others would react badly to large amounts but could easily consume moderate amounts every day without any problems. When the problem does occur, reduction or elimination of milk and the many products made from it cheese, ice cream, yogurt, etc. Fat malabsorption, a possible cause of diarrhea and gas, is also common in HIV disease. Researchers have reported that around one-quarter of people in early disease stages have already developed fat malabsorption, and that by later disease stages, this problem may occur in more than half of all HIV-positive people.

Thus, many people may find it necessary to keep the fat content of their diet moderately low. HIV drugs and dietary requirements: Some of the HIV drug regimens require certain dietary adjustments. Certain dietary changes may be needed in those with any significant level of liver damage. For example, for some people with advanced liver disease, most commonly due to coinfection with hepatitis virus es , the protein content of the diet may need to be reduced.

Since, for all the reasons discussed below, adequate protein is so important, some people jump to the conclusion that more is better. Unfortunately, with serious liver disease, a too-high level of protein may be dangerous.

When protein is broken down in the body, one of the byproducts is ammonia. A damaged liver cannot process ammonia as well as a healthy liver can. The result can be an overload that results in encephalopathy, a brain condition that can result in a state of mental confusion and, in advanced stages, a coma. Another diet change that may be very important for some people with liver disease is salt reduction.

In people who have developed ascites, a complication of cirrhosis damage to the liver that results in an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, too much salt intake can worsen the problem. It may also be important to limit iron intake, since diets higher in iron have been tied to liver damage in those with hepatitis C. Drinking plenty of good liquids is just as critical as eating well.

Your diet must include plenty of water. The old adage about drinking eight large glasses of water per day approximately two quarts is actually a good beginning. However, because your size affects how much water you need, a better and simpler rule is to divide your body weight in pounds in half, and then drink at least that number of ounces every day. For example, if you weigh pounds, divide that in half and drink 70 ounces of water almost nine cups per day.

Many people drink far too little water, thinking that they can substitute drinks like colas or other soft drinks or coffee that are made with water. Here are a few tips to consider: Drink lots of water: You need lots of fresh, pure water put into your body every single day.

And remember that your water should be safe. The risk of water-borne infections is too high to ignore this. This is important for anyone since there are organisms like cryptosporidia that can cause infections even in the HIV-negative, but it is particularly crucial for those who have lower T4 counts especially under , since they are at the highest risk of developing serious waterborne infections.

Herbal teas and fresh juices: Many people find herb teas to be a nice addition to their good liquid list. Fresh fruit and vegetable juices are other healthful liquids. Just remember that much of the nutrient content in vegetable and fruit juices is in the pulp. Bottled fruit and vegetable juices: These are another source of good liquids, which are widely available.

Just make sure you pick the juices with little or no sugar. There are also canned or bottled juice spritzers, which are a good alternative to a cola or other soft drinks. They have no added sugar but great flavor and are just as fizzy.

These include soups, herb teas, and roasted-grain coffee substitutes.

related stories